The defeat at Badr was an ignominy which the
Quraishites pride could not leave unavenged. Revenge was, therefore, the catchword all
over Makkah. The Makkans even forbade lamenting over their murdered people, or ransoming
their captives at Badr Battle lest the Muslims should realize the grave degree of sadness
and feeling of tragedy they were experiencing.
In the wake of Badr event, Quraish was in common
consent and started fresh preparations to launch an overall war against the Muslims in
order to restore their blemished prestige and wounded pride. The most enthusiastic
polytheists desiring to go into a new battle were Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, Safwan bin
Omaiyah, Abu Sufyan bin Harb, and Abdullah bin Abi Rabia. They were determined
to crush the commonwealth of Islam once and for all. Emissaries were sent to all the
tribes to make common cause against the rising Faith. As a consequence of this, they
managed to enlist the support of two well-known tribes Kinana and Tihamah besides some
desert bedouins Ahabish. It was also decided that the profits of the escaped
caravan headed by Abu Sufyan, which amounted to 1000 camels and 50 thousand Dinars, should
be devoted for providing equipment to the army. The Noble Qur‚n has alluded to this
decision of theirs in the following words:
who disbelieve spend their wealth to hinder (men) from the path of All‚h, and so will
they continue to spend it; but in the end it will become an anguish for them. Then they
will be overcomed." [Al-Qur'an 8:36]
They also devised other ways of recruitment
including hiring poets to entice the tribes into fighting the Muslims. Safwan bin Omaiyah
allured Abu Azza, the poet to work in this context in return for riches after the
war or supporting his daughters if killed. Incidentally, this poet was prisoner of war (in
the context of the Badr events) in the hands of the Muslims and the Prophet [pbuh] was
gracious enough to release him unransomed provided he would not engage in fight against
Abu Sufyan nursed the most grudge against Muslims
because he had lost most of his supplies in As-Sawiq invasion, let alone the heavy
economic losses that Quraish had sustained in the aftermath of the events that featured
the platoon of Zaid bin Harithah.
In the light of these successive failures, Quraish
precipitated and accelerated their preparations for a decisive battle with the Muslims. At
the turn of the year everything was ready for the move. The Makkans also decided to take
their women along with them for they might arouse them to fight manfully. Thus a
contingent of three thousand pitched warriors, of whom seven hundred were mailed soldiers
and two hundred well-mounted[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/92; Fath
Al-Bari 7/346] cavalry with three thousand camels and fifteen women marched towards
Madinah. The general leader was Abu Sufyan bin Harb, the cavalry under the leadership of
Khalid bin Al-Waleed assisted by Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, and Bani Abd Ad-Dar
were entrusted with the flag.
Old deep-seated feelings of hatred, with heart-based
grudge enveloped the whole process foreshadowing bitter, bloody revenge-instigated
fighting between the two parties.
Meanwhile Al-Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib,
was closely watching the military movements and preparations for war, and these were all
included in an urgent message sent by him to Prophet [pbuh] who received it while he was
in Qub‚ Mosque. Ubai bin Kab read the letter to the Prophet [pbuh], who asked
him to be reticent with respect to its serious contents. He hurried back to Madinah,
convened a meeting with the Helpers and Emigrants and conducted with them serious
consultations as regards the measures to be taken.
The whole of Madinah was put on the alert and all
men were heavily armed even during prayer in anticipation of any emergency. A group of
Helpers volunteered to guard the Prophet [pbuh] and kept watchful eye all night at his
door, amongst whom there were Sad bin Muadh, Usaid bin Hudair and Sad
bin Ubadah. Lest they should be taken by surprise, armed groups of the Madinese
began to police the entrances and roads leading to the city. To reconnoitre the movements
of the polytheists, Muslim platoons began to patrol the routes for any probable enemy
The Makkan army, on the other hand, continued the
march along the usual western road. On reaching Al-Abw‚, Hind bint Utbah, Abu
Sufyans wife, suggested that they dig up the grave of the Prophet [pbuh]s
mother, but the leaders of the army refused to do so for fear of the consequent results.
The army then followed Wadi Al-Aqeeq and turned right to encamp themselves at a
place called Ainain near Uhud Mountain. That was on Friday, 6th Shawwal, 3 A.H.
The scouting party of Madinah conveyed the news of
the Makkan army step by step. Then the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] held a head military
consultation assembly to exchange views about the situation. He told them about a dream he
had. He said: "By All‚h, I have dreamt of I implore All‚h to be a dream of
bounty cows slaughtered and that there was a groove at the pointed top of my sword,
and that I had inserted my hand into an immune armour."
The interpretation of the cows was that
some of his men were killed, and the groove at the pointed top of his sword
was that a member of his House would be hurt. As for the armour it was
Madinah. Then he offered a suggestion that his Companions should not go out of Madinah and
that they should encamp themselves within the city. He was of the opinion that the enemies
should be left in the open to exhaust themselves and thus the Muslims would not risk a
battle. But if they thought of attacking Madinah, Muslim men would be ready to fight them
at the mouths of lanes; whereas Muslim-women would help from over the house roofs."
Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul the head of the hypocrites; who attended the
meeting as a chief of Al-Khazraj supported the Prophet [pbuh]s plan.
As a matter of fact his agreement was not based on
the righteousness of the plan but rather on personal benefit. He did not want to fight. On
the contrary he secretly aimed at being far away from fight. However it was All‚hs
Will that he should be disclosed and disgraced in public for the first time. It was
His Will that the curtain which concealed their disbelief behind should be uncovered and
pulled down. All‚hs Will enabled the Muslims to recognize the reality of those
snakes that were creeping within their garments and inside the sleeves of their clothes.
Thanks to All‚h they recognized them in one of the most critical times of their lives.
Some of the best honourable Companions, who had
missed Al-Jih‚d in Badr invasion, suggested that the Prophet [pbuh] should go out
of Madinah and urged him to accept their point of view. One of them said: "O,
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh], for long time we have been looking forward to this day; and we
have implored All‚h to make such a day draw near. Thanks to All‚h it is time to fight.
So let us go out and fight our enemies lest they should think that we have lost heart and
do not dare to fight them." Hamza bin Abdul Muttalib the paternal uncle of the
Prophet [pbuh], who had already covered the ornaments of his sword with idolaters
blood in Badr Battle, was ahead of those enthusiastics who urged him to go out and meet
the disbelievers. He said to the Prophet [pbuh]: "By All‚h, Who has sent the Book
down unto you, I will not taste food till I fight them with my sword outside
Madinah."[As-Seerah Al-Halabiyah 2/14]
After weighing carefull the pros and cons of the
issue, it was decided that the enemy should be resisted outside the city at Uhud.
Ascending the pulpit at the Friday congregational
prayer, the Prophet [pbuh] urged the people in his sermon to fight courageously. "If
you remain steadfast," he said "you will be helped by the Power of the All-
Mighty." Then he commanded his men to make ready for the battle. Most of them
He led the afternoon prayer with crowds of people.
Then he entered his house accompanied by his two friends Abu Bakr and Umar. They
helped him dress and wear his headcloth. He armed himself and wore two armours one over
the other. He wore his sword and went out to meet people.
People were waiting for him impatiently. Sad
bin Muadh and Usaid bin Hudair blamed people for pressing on the Prophet [pbuh].
They said: "You have forced the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] to fight the enemy outside
Madinah." Therefore they were determined to leave the whole matter to the Prophet
[pbuh], and blamed themselves for what they had already done. When the Prophet [pbuh] came
out, they said: "O Messenger of All‚h, we should have not disagreed with you. So,
you are free to do what you desire. If you prefer to stay inside Madinah we will stay with
you. Upon this the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] remarked: "It does not become a Prophet
that once he had put on armour, he should take it off, until All‚h has decided between
him and the enemy." [Quoted by
Ahmad, Nasa'i, Hakim and Ibn Ishaq]
The Prophet [pbuh] divided his army into three
- Al-Muhajireen battalion, under the command of Musab bin
- Al-Ansari-Aws battalion was commanded by Usaid bin Hudair.
- Al-Ansari-Khazraj battalion with Al-Hubab bin Al-Mundhir to lead it.
The army consisted of a thousand fighters; a hundred
of them armoured; another fifty horsemen. [Al-Huda 2,92]
He appointed Ibn Umm Maktum to lead the people in prayer in Madinah. Departure was
announced and the army moved northwards with the two Sads, who were
running in front of the army.
Upon passing along Al-Wada mountain trail he
saw a well-armed battalion, which were detached from the main body of the army. The
Prophet [pbuh] inquired who they were and he was told that they were Jews and were allies
of Al-Khazraj. They told him that they wanted to contribute to the fight against the
idolaters. "Have they embraced Islam?" The Prophet [pbuh] asked. "No,"
they said. So he refused admitting them and said that he would not seek the assistance of
disbelievers against the idolaters.
As soon as he reached a location called Ash-Shaikhan, he paraded his army. He dismissed those whom he considered to be disabled or
too young to stand the fight. Among them were Abdullah bin Umar bin
Al-Khattab. Usama bin Zaid; Usaid bin Zaheer, Zaid bin Thabit, Zaid bin Arqam. Araba
bin Aws, Amr bin Hazm, Abu Saeed Al-Khudri, Zaid bin Haritha Al-Ansari,
Sad bin Habba and Al-Bar‚ bin Azib, Sahih Al-Bukhari pointed out that
he had shared in the fight that day.
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] allowed both
Rafi bin Khadaij and Samura bin Jundub to join the army though they were too
young. The former proved to be skillful at shooting arrows; the latter wrestled the former
and beat him. The admission of Rafi made Samura say: "I am stronger than him, I
can overcome him." When the Prophet [pbuh] heard this saying he ordered them to
wrestle. They did. Samura won so he was also admitted.
As night fell upon them there, they performed both
the sunset and the evening prayers and spent the night there as well. Fifty people were
chosen to guard the camp and go round it. Muhammad bin Maslama Al-Ansari, the hero of the
brigade of Kab bin Al-Ashraf, was in charge of the guards. Whereas Dhakwan bin
Abd Qais undertook the responsibility of guarding the Prophet [pbuh], in particular.
At the end of the night and just before it was
daybreak, the Prophet [pbuh] moved and when he got to Ash-Shawt he observed the dawn
prayer. There he was close enough to the enemy that they could see one another. It was
there that Abdullah bin Ubai the hypocrite rebelled against the
Muslims. One-third of the army withdrew with him that is to say three hundred
fighters. He said, "We do not know why we shall kill ourselves." He claimed that
his withdrawal was no more than showing protest against the Messenger of All‚h
had already refused his opinion and accepted that of the others.
Undoubtedly that was not the real cause of his
detachment. If it had been the refusal of his opinion as the hypocrite claimed
there would have no sense whatsoever for his joining the Prophetic army. If it had
been so, he would have refused to go out with the army from the very beginning of the
march. As a matter of fact the real purpose of this rebellion, withdrawal and detachment
at this delicate and awkward position and time was to produce bewilderment,
confusion of mind, and disorder in the Muslims army who were within the sight and hear
range of the enemy who were also looking forward to seeing more and more dissension on the
side of the Muslims, like themselves. They also aimed at breaking the high morale of the
believers. That would accelerate in their opinion the breakdown and
consequently the death of Muhammad, his faithful Companions and Islam as a whole. The way
would then be clear for the reclaim of presidency, which that hypocrite had lost on the
advent of Islam into Madinah.
Short of All‚hs Care, the hypocrites
plot would have been successful. Banu Haritha of Al-Aws and Banu Salama of Al-Khazraj were
partially impressed by the hypocrites behaviour. Both of them were overwhelmed by
confusion and they had almost started to withdraw, but All‚hs Care saved them from
that disgrace. About their incident All‚h says:
"When two parties
from among you were about to lose their heart, but All‚h was their Wali (Supporter
and Protector). And in All‚h should the believers put their trust."
Abdullah bin Haram the father of Jabir
bin Abdullah attempted to stop their withdrawal. He reminded the hypocrites
of their duty at this delicate and awkward condition, but in vain. He followed them,
reproached them and urged them to go back saying: "Come and fight in the way of
All‚h or at least be defenders." They said: "If we had known that you would
really fight we would have not gone back." Having despaired of them, he addressed
them saying: "May All‚h cast you away, you enemies of All‚h. All‚h will certainly
suffice His Prophet." All‚h says about those hypocrites:
"And that He
might test the hypocrites, it was said to them: Come, fight in the way of All‚h or
(at least) defend yourselves. They said: Had we known that fighting will take
place, we would certainly have followed you. They were that day, nearer to disbelief
than to Faith, saying with their mouths what was not in their hearts. And All‚h has full
knowledge of what they conceal." [Al-Qur'an 3:167]
With the remainder of fighters, the Messenger of
All‚h [pbuh] moved towards the enemy. After the rebellion and withdrawal of the
hypocrites, the number of soldiers was reduced to seven hundred only.
The camp of idolaters was situated in such a place
that the many roads leading to Uhud were almost blocked by them. So the Messenger of
All‚h [pbuh] said to his men: "Which man of you can lead us to where the people
(i.e. the idolaters) are, along a short track that does not pass by them?" Abu
Khaithama said: "O Messenger of All‚h [pbuh], I am the man you need." Then he
chose a short track that led to Uhud passing by Harrah Bani Harithah and their farms,
leaving the idolaters army westwards.
On their way they passed by Hait (i.e.
the field) of Marba bin Qaizi, who was a blind hypocrite. When Marba felt and
realized that they were the Prophetic army, he started throwing earth at their faces, so
they rushed to kill him, but the Prophet [pbuh] said:
"Do not kill him. He is
blind in heart and eyes."
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] went along till
climbed down the hillock of Uhud at the slope of the valley. He camped there with his army
facing Madinah while their backs were to the hills of Uhud mountain. So the army of the
enemy stood a barrier between the Muslims and Madinah.
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] mobilized his army.
He arranged them into two rows to prepare them for fight. He selected fifty skillful
archers that formed a squad and made them under the command of Abdullah bin Jubair
bin An-Numan Al-Ansari Al-Awsi Al-Badri. He issued his orders to them to stay where
they were on a mountain(side) at the south bank of Qanat Al-Wadi (i.e. a canal of
the valley), south east of Muslims camp at about one hundred and fifty metres from the
Islamic army. Later on this mountain was called the Mountain of Archers.
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] clarified the mission
of this squad in words he directed to them. He said to their leader: "Drive off the
horses from us by means of arrows, lest they should attack us from behind (the rear).
Whether we win the battle or lose it, stand steadily in your position and mind that we are
not attacked from your side."[Ibn
"Defend our backs! If
you see us slain. Do not come to assist us; and if you see gaining grounds, do not share
us."[Fath Al-Bari 7/350]
In a version by Al-Bukh‚ri the Prophet [pbuh] said:
"If you see us snatched
into pieces by birds, do not leave this position of yours till I send for you. And if you
see that we have defeated the enemy and trodden on them do not desert your position till I
send for you."[Sahih
Al-Bukhari, the Book of Jihad 1/426]
With the assignment of this squad and locating it on
the mountainside and the issuance of those strict military orders, the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] blocked the only groove that might lead the idolaters stealthily to the rear of
Muslim ranks and might even enable them to encircle them in an encompassment procedure.
The assignments of posts and responsibilities for
the rest of the army were performed by the Prophet [pbuh] as follows: On the right wing,
he appointed Al-Mundhir bin Amr. On the left he appointed Az-Zubair bin
Al-Awwam, and made Al-Miqdad bin Al-Aswad his assistant and supporter.
Az-Zubairs function was to standfast in the face of Khalid bin Al-Waleeds
horsemen. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] selected the top and the most courageous group to
be in the vanguard of the army. They were notable for their readiness, alertness and
bravery and estimated to be equal to thousands of men.
It was a wise and carefully-laid plan which revealed
the genius of military leadership that the Prophet [pbuh] possessed. No other leader could
have drawn a more accurate or wise plan. Although he approached the site later than the
enemy, he managed to occupy better positions. He made the rocky mountainside to function
as shield for the armys rear and right flank. He was able, by blocking the only
vulnerable gap on the side, to provide additional maximum protection for the rear as well
as the left wing. For fear of possible defeat, and to deter the Muslims from fleeing, in
which case they would fall easy prisoners in the hands of the enemy, he chose a high place
for encampment. Moreover a strategic site of this sort would surely inflict heavy losses
on the polytheists if they thought of approaching or occupying his positions. In a further
step, he reduced the enemy to a narrow scope of choice when they were cornered for
encampment in geographically low positions that would avail them nothing of the benefits
of any possible victory; at the same time they would not be able to escape the pursuit of
the Muslims in case victory sided with the latter. To make up for the quantitative
shortage in fighting personnel, he chose a picked body of fighters to stand at the front.
The army of the Prophet [pbuh] was thus fully
mobilized on Shawwal 7th, 3 A.H.
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] forbade the Muslims
to start the fight without having an order from him. He, then, wore two armours a
front armour and a back one. He urged his Companions to fight and spurred them to show
stamina and steadfastness at fight. He started to implant the spirit of boldness and
bravery in them. To wage and inflame his Companions and in order to standfast in the
fight, he took a sharp sword, held it in his hand and called out unto his Companions and
said: "Who is ready to take this sword and give it its proper due?" Many a man
set out to take it. Some of them were Ali bin Abi Talib, Az-Zubair bin
Al-Awwam and Umar bin Al-Khattab. But it was granted to none. Abu Dujana
Sammak bin Kharsha inquired: "O Messenger of All‚h, what is its price?" The
Prophet [pbuh] said: "It is to strike the enemys faces with it till it was
bent." So Abu Dujana said: "O Messenger of All‚h I will take it for that
price." and he was given the sword.
Abu Dujana was a man of courage who used to swagger
at war. He had a red band which he wore round his head. Whenever he was head-banded
everybody knew that he was determined to fight to death. Therefore as soon as Abu Dujana
took the Prophet [pbuh]s sword, he banded his head and started strutting amongst the
Watching him doing that, the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] said: "This is a sort of walking that All‚h detests except in such a
The idolaters applied the rows system in the
mobilization of their army. The general leadership of the army was entrusted to Abu Sufyan
Sakhr bin Harb, who would be in the centre-position of the army. Khalid bin Al-Waleed was
on the right wing; whereas Ikrima, the son of Abu Jahl was on the left. Safwan bin
Omaiya was in charge of infantry men. The archers were under the command of Abdullah
bin Abi Rabia.
As for the standard, a squad of Bani Abd
Ad-Dar were in charge to bear it. Thus was the distribution of the posts of the army ever
since Abd Munaf had already assigned them. This assignment had been inherited from
Qusai bin Kilab as we have previously alluded to in an early phase of this book. No
one had the right to compete them with it. It was consistent with their traditions that
they had inherited from their ancestors.
Abu Sufyan, the general leader, reminded his men
the standard bearers of what had happened to Quraish on Badr Day (i.e.
battle) when their standard bearer, An-Nadr bin Al-Harith, was captured. In an attempt to
wage their anger and enmity to the Muslims he said: "O Bani Abd Ad-Dar! You
have been assigned bearers of our standard and you know that the standard is the first
thing that the enemy attacks. Should it fall, we fall down too. Therefore, I say either
you guarantee its safety or leave it for us, and we will certainly suffice you that
Abu Sufyans attempt seemed to be fruitful. For
his speech made Bani Abd Ad-Dar so extremely angry that they threatened him and
almost attacked him for that. Addressing him, they said: "You want us to deliver you
the custodianship of the standard? Tomorrow when we fight them, you will witness our
deeds." As a matter of fact, they fought bravely and stoodfast in defence of the
standard till they were all killed.
A little time before the break out of the battle,
Quraish made some endeavours to sow the seeds of discord and dispute among the Muslims.
First, Abu Sufyan sent to the Helpers a message saying: "Leave us alone to fight our
cousins and do not interfere. If you stand aside, we will not fight you; for fighting you
is not a target of ours." But that attempt proved to be fruitless. What could such a
wicked scheme do to those whose Faith was as solid and firm as mountains?! The Helpers
reply was undoubtedly disappointing and contrary to Abu Sufyans expectations.
The zero-hour was due. The two parties drew nearer.
Undespaired by the first failure, Quraish made another attempt, for the same purport but
now with the assistance of a traitor called Abu Amir Al-Fasiq, whose name was
Abd Amr bin Saifi. He was called a monk, but the Messenger of All‚h
nicknamed him Al-F‚siq (i.e. perverted transgressor; dissolute). As he was the
head of Aws in Al-Jahiliya, he could not tolerate Islam when it came. He announced
his enmity to the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] in public. He left Madinah for the
Quraishites in Makkah to rally them against the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] and to urge
them to start the fight against him. He claimed that he was obeyed and esteemed by his
people and that as soon as they saw him come they would join him immediately.
So he was the first one among the mob and slaves of
Quraish to show resistance. He called out unto his people, recognized them and said:
"O kinfolk of Aws! I am Abu Amir." Their reply was "No eyes of
anybody shall be consoled by viewing you, O F‚siq." Hearing them say so, he
said: "My people must have been afflicted by an evil after my departure."
Therefore when the fight broke out, he fought them fiercely and pelted his people with
stones, as well.
That was how the second attempt of Quraish to sow
the seeds of discord among people of Faith. This, however, revealed the great terror of
the Quraishites cast in their hearts in spite of their supremacy in number and equipment.
Quraishi-women participated in the battle led by the
wife of Abu Sufyan, Hind bint Utbah. They wandered among the rows of the idolaters,
tapped on tambourines, encouraged men to fight, inflamed the emotions of heroes, lancers,
swordsmen and brave fighters. At one time they addressed the standard-bearers:
"O Bani Abd Ad-Dar!
O home defenders,
Strike with your sharp swords
And at another time they would wage peoples
zeal by singing:
"If you fight (bravely), we will embrace
and unfold mats to welcome you.
But if you flee from the battlefield, we leave you,
Desert you and no more love you."
The two parties approached and grew very close to
each another. The phases of fight started. The first combatant was the standard-bearer,
Talha bin Abi Talha Al-Abdari, who was the most distinguished idolater. He was one
of the bravest men of Quraish fighters. Muslims nicknamed him the ram of the
battalion. He came forth riding a camel and challenged the Muslims to a single
combat. People refrained from fighting him due to his bravery; but Az-Zubair bin
Al-Awwam advanced for the fight. He did not give the Ram any chance to
fight but fell on him like a lion on his camels back, pulled him down to the ground
and slaughtered him with his sword.
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] who was watching that
wonderful incident exclaimed: All‚hu Akbar that is All‚h is the
Greatest and the Muslims exclaimed All‚hu Akbar too. He praised Az-Zubair
when he said:
"Every Prophet has a
disciple and Az-Zubair is a disciple of mine."[As-Seerah Al-Halaiyah 2/18]
Soon the general engagement ensued and the fight of
the two parties grew fierce everywhere on the battlefield. The strain of the fight was
centred round the carriers of the standard. After the death of their leader Talha bin Abi
Talha, Banu Abd Ad-Dar alternated the mission successively. Talhas brother,
Uthman, ran forward and seized the standard which lay by the lifeless body of his
brother, chanting: "The standard-bearer has the right to dye its shaft in blood, till
it be beaten in his hand." Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib attacked and dealt him a
blow that cut his arm and shoulder and went down to his navel to uncover his lung.
The standard was raised up again by Abu Sad
bin Abi Talha; but Sad bin Abi Waqqas shot him with a deadly arrow that hit him at
his throat and made his tongue hang out breathing his last.
In another version it was narrated that Abu
Sad lifted the standard up and challenged the Muslims to fight him. Ali bin
Abi Talib went forth. They exchanged two blows. Then Ali gave him a terminal blow
that finished him off.
Musafi bin Talha bin Abi Talha then hoisted
the standard, but was soon shot with an arrow by Asim bin Thabit bin Abi
His brother Kilab bin Talha bin Abi Talha followed him picked the banner and lifted it up;
but Az-Zubair bin Al-Awwam attacked him and managed to kill him. Their brother
Al-Jallas bin Talha bin Abi Talha lifted the banner up but Talha bin Ubaidu-All‚h
stabbed him to death. They also said that it was Asim bin Thabit who managed to deal
a terminal blow to him.
All those six people killed round and in defence of
the standard, belonged to one house, the house of Abi Talha Abdullah bin
Uthman bin Abd Ad-Dar. Another man from Bani Abd Ad-Dar, called Artat
bin Sharhabeel carried the standard but he also was killed by Ali bin Abi
Others said it was Hamzah who killed him not Ali.
Then it was Shuraih bin Qariz who was killed by
Quzman he was a hypocrite who fought for prestige only, not in defence of Islam.
Abu Zaid Amr bin Abd Munaf Al-Abdari lifted the standard up but he was
killed by Quzman too. A son of Sharhabeel bin Hashim Al-Abdari hoisted it again and
was also killed by Quzman.
So we see that ten fighters of Bani Abd Ad-Dar
the standard-bearers were annihilated. Seeing that none of Abd
survived to carry the standard, a slave of theirs called Sawab came to raise
it. The slave showed more admirable sorts of bravery and steadfastness than his former
masters. Sawab, the slave went on fighting till his hand was cut off. So he knelt down and
embraced the banner, leant it against his chest and neck lest it should fall down to the
ground. He remained fighting steadily and steadfastly till he was killed. In the meanwhile
he did not stop saying: "O All‚h, have I been excused?" After the death of the
slave Sawab, the standard fell down to the ground, and remained there as there was no one
to carry it.
Whilst the brunt of the battle centred around the
standard, bitter fighting was going on everywhere on the battlefield. The spirit of Faith
overwhelmed the Muslims ranks; so they rushed among the idolaters as if they had
been an outbreak of a destructive flood that overflowed and knocked down all dams and
barriers standing in its way "I seek death, I seek death." That was their
announced motto on Uhud Day.
Abu Dujana, recognized by the red band worn round
his head, came forth, fighting with the sword of the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh]. He was
determined to pay its price at all costs. He killed all the idolaters that stood on his
way splitting and dispersing their ranks. Az-Zubair bin Al-Awwam said:
"I felt angry and discouraged when the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] refused to give me the sword but gave it to Abu
Dujana. I said
to myself: I am his paternal cousin the cousin of his aunt Safiya a
Quraishite, besides, I was the first who demanded it and yet he favoured him to me. By
All‚h, I will watch how he will use it. So I followed him, I saw him take out his
red band and wear it round his head. Seeing him like that, the Helpers said, Abu
Dujana had worn the band of death. Then he set out saying loudly:
I am the one whom my intimate friend made
covenant with, when we were under the palm-trees on the mountain side.
The covenant that we made was that I should not
fight at the rear.
But fight at the front heroically with the sword of
All‚h and His Messenger.
No one stood the way of Abu Dujana but was killed.
There was a man among the idolaters whose only target was to finish off the wounded
Muslims. During the fight Abu Dujana drew near that man; so I implored All‚h that they
might engage in combat. They in fact did and exchanged two sword-strokes. The idolater
struck Abu Dujana, but he escaped it and it pierced into his leather shield. The
idolaters sword now stuck to it, Abu Dujana struck him with the sword and killed
him. Ibn Hisham 2/68,69] Into the thick of the battle, he rushed to kill a person who was inciting
the enemy to fight the Muslims. Upon this the person shrieked and lo! it was a woman. Abu
Dujana spared her saying: I respect the Prophet [pbuh]s sword too much to use
it on a woman. The woman was Hind bint Utbah."
Describing the same incident, Az-Zubair bin
Al-Awwam said: "I saw Abu Dujana raising a sword over the parting part of Hind
bint Utbas head then he moved it off. I said to myself: All‚h and His
Messenger know best. (i.e. know why he acted like that). [bn Hisham 2/69]"
Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib displayed wonderful
feats of gallantry against the overwhelming odds which stood unparalled and created
consternation and confusion in the disbelieving hosts. Heroes dispersed off his way as if
they had been tree-leaves blown away by strong wind. In addition to his effective
contribution to the annihilation of the idolaters who stood in defence of the standard, he
was even of much greater effect at fighting against men of bravery and distinguished
horsemen. It was All‚hs Will that he be murdered when he was at the top. He was not
killed in a face-to-face fight on the battlefield in the normal way by which heroes
die but rather assassinated in the dead-dark as was the custom of killing generous
and noble men that were impossible to kill in an honourable fight.
Hamzahs assassin, Wahshi bin Harb, described
how he killed Hamzah. He said:
"I was a slave working to Jubair bin
Mutim, whose paternal uncle Tuaimah bin Adi was injured at Badr Battle.
So when Quraish marched to Uhud, Jubair said to me: If you kill Hamzah, the uncle of
Muhammad, stealthily you shall be manumitted. "
"So I marched with the people to Uhud." He
used to describe himself as, "I am a picaro good at spearing." "So when the
two parties fought, I set out seeking Hamzah. I saw him amidst people fighting. He was
like a white and black striped camel, striking severely with his sword and no one could
stand on his way. By All‚h! When I was getting ready and trying to seize the fit
opportunity to spear him, hiding sometimes behind a tree or a rock hoping that he might
draw nearer and be within range at that moment I caught sight of Siba bin
Abd Al-Uzza going closer towards him. When Hamzah observed him, he said:
Come on! O son of the clitoris-cutter. for his mother used to be
a circumciser. Then he struck one strong stroke that could hardly miss his head."
Wahshi said: "Then I balanced my spear and
shook it till I was content with it, then I speared him and it went down into his stomach
and issued out between his legs. He attempted moving towards me but he was overcome by his
wound. I left him there with the spear in his entrails till he died. Then I came to him,
pulled out my spear and returned to the encampment place. I stayed there and did not go
out, for he was the only one I sought. I only killed him to free myself. So as soon as I
got back to Makkah, I became a free man." [Ibn Hisham 2/69-72; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/583]
Although the death of Asad (Lion) of
All‚h and His Messenger Hamzah bin Abdul Muttalib was a great
loss, the Muslims maintained full control over the whole situation on the battlefield. On
that day, Abu Bakr, Umar bin Al-Khattab, Ali bin Abi Talib, Az-Zubair bin
Al-Awwam, Musab bin Umair, Talha bin Ubaidull‚h, Abdullah
bin Jahsh, Sad bin Ar-RabÓ and Anas bin An-Nadr and others all of them
fought so fiercely, effectively and efficiently that they broke the strong will of the
idolaters and scattered them.
One of the brave adventurers of that day was Hanzala
Al-Ghaseel He was Hanzala bin Abu Amir. Abu Amir was the very monk that
was nicknamed Al-F‚siq (i.e. the dissolute, evildoer). He is the very
one that we have recently mentioned. Hanzala, who was newly married, left his wifes
bed for Al-Jih‚d (Fight in the cause of All‚h). He set out the moment he heard of
the call to Al-Jih‚d. When he faced the idolaters on the battlefield, he made his
way through their ranks till he reached their leader Abu Sufyan Sakhr bin Harb and had
almost killed him, if he had not been ordained to be a martyr. For at that moment he was
seen by Shaddad bin Al-Aswad who struck him to death.
The archers squad whom the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] located on the Archers Mountain, had the upper hand in administering the war
activities to go in favour of the Muslim army. The Makkan horsemen commanded by
Khalid bin Al-Waleed, supported by Abu Amir Al-F‚siq had for three times
attacked the left wing of the Muslim army with the aim of crushing it and then
infiltrating into the rear to create a sort of confusion and disorder in the ranks of the
Muslims and subsequently inflict heavy defeat on them. But thanks to the dexterity and
great efforts of the archers, the three assaults were thwarted.[Fath Al-Bari 7/346]
War activities went on and on fierecly with the
Muslims in full command of the whole military developments until the idolaters finally
staggered and retreated, leaving all motives of alleged pride, and affected dignity in
oblivion, and their standard trodden by the feet of the fighters with none ever courageous
enough to approach it. It seemed as if the three thousand idolaters had been fighting
thirty thousand Muslims and not merely several hundreds.
Ibn Ishaq said: "Then All‚h sent down His Help
unto the Muslims and verified His Promise to them. They chased the idolaters and evacuated
them from their camp. No doubt it was a certain defeat." In a version by
Abdullah bin Az-Zubair that his father had said: "By All‚h, I was watching the
servants of Hind bint Utbah and her women friends fleeing with their garments
gathered up. No one was there to prevent us from capturing them."[Ibn Hisham 2/77]
In another version by Al-Bar‚ bin Azib
mentioned in Sahih Al-Bukh‚ri he said: "When we fought them,
they fled, and their women could be seen fleeing in the mountains with their anklets and
legs revealed."[Sahih Al-Bukhari
2/579] The Muslims pursued the enemies putting them to sword and
collecting the spoils.
While the small army of Islam were recording the
second absolute and clear victory over the Makkans which was no less in splendour
and glory than the first one at Badr the majority of the archers on the
mountainside committed a fatal mistake that turned the whole situation upside down, and
constituted a source of heavy losses amongst the Muslims. It has almost brought about the
murder of the Prophet [pbuh], and left a very bad impression on the fame and dignity they
deservedly earned at Badr Battle.
We have already spoken about the positive orders
given to the archers to hold on to their position whatever the course of the main
engagement. In spite of those strict orders, and their leaders Abdullah
bin Jubair warning, forty archers deserted their posts, enticed by the too soon
roar of victory as well as worldly avarice for the spoils of war.[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/426] The
others, however, nine in number and Abdullah, their leader, decided to abide by the
Prophet [pbuh]s order and stay where they were until they were given leave or killed
to the last. Consequently the cleft was left inadequately defended .
The shrewd Khalid bin Al-Waleed seized this golden
opportunity to turn swiftly round to the rear of the Muslim army and encompass them.
Exterminating Ibn Jubair and his group, they fell promptly upon the rear of the Muslims
and his horsemen uttered a shout that signalled the new military developments. The
polytheists returned once again to counterattack the Muslims. An idolist woman
called Umra bint Alqama Al-Harithiyah rushed to the lying-on-earth
standard, picked it up and hoisted it. The idolaters gathered together around the standard
and called out unto one another till they encircled the Muslims and stoodfast to fight
The Muslims consequently got entrapped between two
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] was then among a
small group of fighters nine in number at the rear of the army[Sahih Muslim 2/107], watching the
engagement and braving the Muslim fighters. Khalid and his men took him by utter surprise,
and obliged him to follow either of two options:
- To flee for his life and abandon his army to its doomed end, or
- To take action at the risk of his life, rally the ranks of the
Muslims again and work their way through the hills of Uhud towards the encompassed army.
The genius of the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh], his
peerless and matchless courage made him opt for the second course. He raised his voice
calling out unto his Companions: "Slaves of All‚h." He did that though he knew
that his loud voice would be heard by the idolaters before it was heard by the Muslims. He
called out unto them risking his life in this delicate situation.
The idolaters, indeed, recognized him and reached
his position even before the other Muslims could do so.
The encompassment of the Muslims revealed three
categories of people: The first group were those who were only interested in themselves
and they went so mad that they fled. They left the battlefield and did not know what
happened to the others. Some of this group fled as far as Madinah. Some others went up the
The second Muslim group were those who returned to
the battle, but mixed with the idolaters in such a way that they could not recognize one
another. Consequently some of them were killed by mistake. On the authority of Al-Bukhari,
he states that Aishah [R] said: "When it was Uhud Battle,
the idolaters were utterly defeated. Satan then called out: O slaves of
Beware the rear (i.e. the enemy is approaching from behind). So those who were at
the front turned back and fought the ones who were behind."
Then Hudhaifah caught sight of his father
Al-Yaman about to be killed by other Muslims. So he said: "O servants of
All‚h! Beware! This is my father. This is my father." Aishah [R]
said: "But they did not part with him till he was killed." Hudhaifah then said:
"May All‚h forgive you." And Urwa said: "By All‚h, from that time
on Hudhaifah has always been blessed and wealthy till he died."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/539, 2/581; Fath Al-Bari 7/351, 362, 363] That was because he forgave them and refused to take any blood-money for his
fathers murder but recommended that it be spent in charity.
This Muslim group suffered from great bewilderment,
and disorder prevailed among them. A lot of them got lost and did not know where to go. At
this awkward time they heard someone calling: "Muhammad is killed." This news
made them even more bewildered and almost out of sense. Their morale broke down, or almost
did in a great number of individuals. Some of them stopped fighting, slackened, and cast
down their weapons. Others thought of getting in touch with Abdullah bin Ubai
the head of the hypocrites and seeking his assistance to fetch them a security
pledge from Abu Sufyan.
Anas bin An-Nadr passed by those people who were
shuddering of fear and panic, and inquired: "What are you waiting for?" They
said: "The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] has been killed." "What do you live
for after Muhammad [pbuh]? Come on and die for what the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] has
died for." Then he said: "O All‚h I apologize for what these people (i.e. the
Muslims) have done; and I swear disavowal of what the idolaters have perpetrated."
Then he moved on till he was encountered by Sad bin Muadh who asked him:
"Where to, Abu Umar?" Anas replied: "Ah, how fine the scent of the
Paradise is! I smell it here in Uhud." He went on and fought against the idolaters
till he was killed. Nobody but his sister could recognize his dead body. It had been cut
and stabbed by over eighty swords, arrows or spears. It was by the tip of his finger that
she after the battle recognized him.[Za'd Al Ma'ad 2/93, 96; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/579]
Thabit bin Ad-Dahdah called unto his people saying:
"O kinfolk of Helpers, if Muhammad [pbuh] were
killed, All‚h is Everlasting and He never dies. Fight in defence of your Faith. All‚h
will help you and so you will be victorious." A group of Helpers joined him and all
set out and attacked a battalion of Khalids horsemen. He kept on fighting till he
and his friends were killed.[Ibn Hisham
An Emigrant passed by a Helper who was besmeared by
blood. He said: "O fellow! Have you heard of Muhammad [pbuh]s murder?" The
Helper answered: "If Muhammad [pbuh] were killed, then he must have completed the
delivery of the Message. So fight in defence of your religion!"[Za'd Al Ma'ad 2/96]
With such boldness and encouragement, the Muslims
soon recovered their spirits, came round to senses and desisted the idea of surrender or
contacting the hypocrite Abdullah bin Ubai. They took up arms and resumed the fight
attempting to make way to the headquarters, particularly after the news of the Prophet
[pbuh]s death had been falsified. The glad tidings nerved them, and helped them to
manage quite successfully the break of the military blockade, and concentrate their forces
in an immune place to resume a relentless and fierce fight against the polytheists.
The third group of Muslims were those who cared for
nothing except the Prophet [pbuh]. At the head of them were notable Companions like Abu
Bakr, Umar bin Al-Khattab, Ali bin Abi Talib and others —÷ž «ŠŠŚ
ŕšŚ„, who hastened to protect the Prophet [pbuh] through unrivalled devotion.
As those groups of Muslims were receiving the blows
of the idolaters and resisting instantly, the fight flared up around the Messenger of
All‚h [pbuh], who had only nine people around him. We have already mentioned that when
the idolaters started their encompassment there were only nine persons around the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh]; and that as soon as he called out unto the Muslims: "Come
on! I am the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh]," the idolaters heard his voice and
recognized him. So they turned back and attacked him with all their power before any of
his Companions ran to his aid.
A violent raging struggle broke out between the nine
Muslims and the idolaters during which peerless sort of love, self-sacrifice, bravery and
heroism were revealed.
Muslim, on the authority of Anas bin Malik narrated
that the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] along with seven Helpers and two Emigrants, was
confined to a trap when the idolaters attacked him. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] then
said: " He who pushes back those idolaters, will be housed in Paradise." or
"He will be my Companion in Paradise." One of the Helpers stepped forward and
fought the idolaters in defence of the Prophet [pbuh] till he was killed. Then they
attacked the Messenger [pbuh] again. The same process was repeated again and again till
all the seven Helpers were killed. Then the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said to his two
Quraishite Companions: "We have not done justice to our Companions."[Sahih Muslim 2/107]
The last of those seven Helpers was Amara bin
Yazeed bin As-Sakan, who kept on fighting till his wounds neutralized him and he fell
dead.[Ibn Hisham 2/81]
After the fall of Ibn Sakan, the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] remained alone with only those two Quraishites. In a version by Abu Uthman
authorized in As-Sahihain he said: "At that time, there were none
with the Prophet [pbuh] except Talha bin Ubaidull‚h and Sad bin Abi Waqqas.[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/527, 2/581] That was the most awkward and dangerous hour for the Prophet
[pbuh], but it
was a golden opportunity for the idolaters who promptly took advantage of it. They
concentrated their attack on the Prophet [pbuh] and looked forward to killing him.
Utbah bin Abi Waqqas pelted him with stones.
One of the stones fell on his face. His lower right incisor Rubaiya (i.e. the
tooth that is between a canine and a front tooth) was injured. His lower lip was wounded.
He was also attacked by Abdullah bin Shihab Az-Zuhri who cleaved his forehead.
Abdullah bin Qamia (Qamia means a humiliated woman),
who was an obstinate strong horseman, struck him violently on his shoulder with his sword;
and that stroke hurt the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] for over a month though it was
not strong enough to break his two armours. He dealt a heavy blow on his cheek. It was so
strong that two rings of his iron-ringed helmet penetrated into his holy cheek. "Take
this stroke from me, I am Ibn Qamia." He said while striking the Messenger with
his sword. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] replied while he was wiping the blood
flowing on his face: "I implore All‚h to humiliate you."[Fath Al-Bari 7/373, 366] (i.e. Aqmaaka
All‚h). In Al-Bukh‚ri it is stated his incisor broke, his head was cleaved,
and that he started wiping the blood off it and saying: "(I wonder) how can people
who cut the face of their Prophet [pbuh] and break the incisor of his he who calls
them to worship All‚h. How can such people thrive or be successful?" About that
incident, All‚h, Glory is to Him, sent down a Qur‚nic verse saying:
"Not for you (O
Muhammad [pbuh] but for All‚h) is the decision; whether He turns in mercy to (pardons)
them or punishes them; verily, they are the Z‚limŻn (polytheists, disobedients,
and wrong-doers)." [Al-Qur'an 3:128] [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/582; Sahih Muslim 2/108]
At-Tabarani states that the Prophet [pbuh] said:
"All‚hs Wrath is great on those who besmear the face of His Messenger,"
observed silence for a short while and then resumed saying:
All‚h, forgive my
people for they have no knowledge."
[Fath Al-Bari 7/373]
In Sahih Muslim it is stated that the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said:
"My Lord, forgive my
people for they have no knowledge."
[Sahih Muslim 2/108]
In Ash-Shifa a book by Ayad
Al-Qadi it is related that the Prophet [pbuh] said:
All‚h, guide my
people for they have no knowledge." [Ash-Shifa 1/81]
It is quite certain that killing the Prophet [pbuh]
was their primary aim, but the two Quraishites Sad bin Abi Waqqas and Talha
bin Ubaidull‚h, who showed great and rare courage and fought so fiercely and boldly
that though they were only two were able to stop the idolaters short of
realizing their aim. They were of the best skillful Arab archers and kept on militating in
defence of the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] till the whole squad of idolaters was driven off
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] emptied his quiver of
arrows and said to Sad bin Abi Waqqas: "Shoot, an arrow Sad. May my
father and mother be sacrified for you.[Sahih
Al-Bukhari 1/407, 2/580, 581]" The Prophet [pbuh] had never
gathered his parents except in the case of Sad a privilege granted to him for
his efficiency.[ibid 1/407, 2/580,581]
In a version by Jabir authorized by An-Nasai concerning the attitude of Talha bin Ubaidull‚h towards the
gathering of idolaters around the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] when there were only
some Helpers with him Jabir said: "When the idolaters reached him, the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said: Who will suffice us their evils (i.e. fight them
back)? Talha said: I will." Then Jabir mentioned the advance of the
Helpers to fight and how they were killed one after the other in a similar way to
Muslims narration "When all the Helpers were killed, Talha proceeded
forward to fight as much as the other eleven ones did till his hand was hurt and his
fingers were cut off. So he said: Be they cut off! The Prophet [pbuh] said:
If you had said: In the Name of All‚h, the angels would have raised you up before
the peoples very eyes." Then he said: "All‚h drove the idolaters
off them."[Fath-al-Bari 7/361;
An-Nasa'i 2/52,53] In Al-Ikleel a book by Hakim
it is stated that Talha had sustained thirty-nine or thirty-five wounds, and his
fingers (i.e. the forefinger and the one next to it got paralyzed.[ibid 7/361]
In a version by Qais bin Abi H‚zim
authorized by Al-Bukhari, he said: "I saw the hand of Talha paralyzed. That was
because he protected the Prophet [pbuh] with it in Uhud Battle."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/527, 2/581]
At-Tirmidhi stated that the Prophet [pbuh] then said
about Talha: "He who desires to see a martyr walking on the ground, let him look at
Talha bin Ubaidull‚h."[Mishkat
2/566; Ibn Hisham 2/86]
Abu DaŻd At-Tayalisi on the authority of
Aishah [R], said: "Whenever Uhud Day (i.e. battle) was
mentioned, Abu Bakr used to say: That was Talhas day (i.e. battle).[Fath Al-Bari 7/361] Abu
Bakr recited a verse of poetry about him: O Talha bin Ubaidull‚h! Paradise is
due to you as water-springs are due to deer to drink out of.
Tareekh Damishq, 7/82] At the awkward and most delicate
circumstances, All‚h, Glory is to Him, sent down His invisible Help. In a version by
Sad cleared and authorized in Sahih Al-Bukhari and Muslim
he said: "I saw the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] on Uhud Day with two men
dressed in white defending him fiercely I have never seen similar to them neither
before Uhud nor after it." In another version: "He means to say that they were
Gabriel and Michael".[Sahih
All those events happened in no time. If the Prophet
[pbuh]s elite Companions had realized the grave situation immediately, they would
have rushed on the spot and would not have left him sustain these wounds. Unfortunately,
they got there after the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] had been wounded and six of the
Helpers killed, the seventh was staggering under the brunt of wounds and desperately
militating in defence of the Prophet [pbuh]. However as soon as they arrived they
encircled the Messenger with their bodies and weapons and were alert enough to prevent the
enemies from reaching him. The first one who returned to give help, was his cavemate Abu
Bakr As-Siddiq [R].
In a version by Aishah [R] recorded in Ibn
Hibbans Sahih, she narrated that Abu Bakr had said:
"When it was Uhud Day and at the time that the
Prophet [pbuh] was left behind, I was the first to go back and see him. Before him I saw a
man fighting to shield him from the enemies. I said to myself: I wish he were
Let my father and mother be sacrificed for you. (O All‚h) Let him be Talha! Let my
parents be sacrificed for you! On the way, I was overtaken by Abu Ubaidah bin
Al-Jarrah, who was then moving as swiftly as a bird. We both rushed to dress the Prophet
[pbuh]s wounds. There we found Talha suffering from serious wounds before the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh]. The Prophet [pbuh] said: See to your brother. His deed
entitled him for an abode in Paradise. I noticed that two rings of the iron-ringed
helmet had penetrated his cheek. So I set out to take them out; but Abu Ubaidah
demanded: By All‚h, O Abu Bakr I beseech you, let me do it myself.
Fearing to hurt the Prophet [pbuh] he started pulling one of the two rings out very slowly
and carefully with his mouth. Then he pulled the arrow out by his mouth, too.
Consequently, his front tooth fell. Then I proceeded to pull the second out; but Abu
Ubaidah besought me to leave it: O, Abu Bakr, I adjure you by All‚h to let me
do it. He pulled the second ring very slowly and carefully with his mouth
till it came out. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said: See to your brother. He has
proved to be worthy of being housed in Paradise. We approached Talha to cure him but
found out that he had had some ten sword-strokes in his body.
2/95] (This showed how efficiently Talha had fought and
struggled on that day)."
At those awkward moments of that day, a group of
Muslim heroes gathered around the Prophet [pbuh] forming a shield to protect him from the
idolaters. Some of them were Abu Dujana, Musab bin Umair, Ali bin Abi
Talib, Sahl bin Haneef, Malik bin Sinan the father of Abu SaÓd Al-Khudri,
UmmAmara, Nusaiba bint Kab Al-M‚ziniya, Qatada bin An-Numan, Umar
bin Al-Khattab, Hatib bin Abi Baltaa and Abu Talha.
The number of idolaters was steadily increasing; and
their attacks, naturally, got severer. Their press had increased to an extent that the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] fell into one of the holes dug and designed by Abu Amir
Al-Fasiq to be used as traps. His knee scratched and Ali helped him by grasping his
hand up. Talha bin Ubaidull‚h took him in his lap till he could stand upright.
Nafi bin Jubair said: I heard an Emigrant say: "I have witnessed Uhud Battle
and watched how arrows had been hurled from all directions at the Prophet [pbuh]. None of
them however hit him. Abdullah, bin Shihab Az-Zuhri said: Guide me to Muhammad
[pbuh]! By All‚h, If I didnt kill him, I would not hope to live. Although the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] was next to him, alone but he did not observe him.
Safwan, a co-polytheist of his, blamed him (for not translating his words into deeds), but
Abdullah swore that he did not see him (the Prophet [pbuh]) and added that he might
be immune to our attempts on his life. He also said that four of them pledged to make a
fresh attempt and kill him, but also to no avail. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/97]
The Muslims showed unprecedented rare heroism and
marvellous sacrifices. Abu Talha for instance shielded the Messenger of
All‚h [pbuh] by his body and used his chest to protect him against the enemy arrows. Anas
related that on Uhud Day when people dispersed off the Prophet [pbuh], Abu Talhah was a
skillful sort of archer who would pull arrows so much that he broke two or three bows that
day. When a man passed along with a quiver full of arrows, the Prophet [pbuh] would say:
"Spread the arrows to Abu Talhah!" Then when the Prophet [pbuh] watched people
shooting, Abu Talhah would say: "I sacrifice my father and mother for your safety. Do
not go too close lest an arrow of theirs should hit you. I would rather die than see you
hurt."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/581]
Abu Dujana stood before the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] and used to protect him from the arrows by his back. Hatib bin Baltaa
followed Utbah bin Abi Waqqas who broke the honourable incisor (of the
Prophet [pbuh]) struck him with the sword, cracked his head and took his mare and
sword. Sad bin Abi Waqqas was so keen to kill his brother Utbah, but he could
not; however, Hatib could.
Sahl bin Haneef a hero archer who had
pledged to die in the cause of All‚h, also played a prominent part in Uhud hostilities.
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] himself was involved
in shooting arrows. In a version by Qatadah bin An-Numan that the Messenger of
All‚h [pbuh] shot so many arrows that the two ends of his bow were flattened. So Qatadah
bin An-Numan took it to remain with him for good. On that day his eye was so hurt
that it fell down onto his cheek; but the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] reput it in its
socket with his hand and it became the better and the more sharp-sighted of the two.
On that day Abdur Rahman bin Awf kept on
fighting till his mouth was hurt and got broken. He sustained over twenty wounds, some in
his leg, and that lamed him.
Malik bin Sinan, the father of Abi Saeed
Al-Khudri sucked the blood out of the Prophet [pbuh]s cheek till he cleaned it. The
Prophet [pbuh] said: "Spit it!". But Malik said: "By All‚h, I will never
spit it". Then he set out to fight. The Prophet [pbuh] then said: "He who wants
to see a man of the people of Paradise, let him look at this one." No sooner had he
resumed fighting than he was martyred in the thick of the battle.
Umm Amarah participated in the fight too. She
encountered Ibn Qamia in combat, and sustained a slight wound on her shoulder, but
she herself also struck him with her sword several times but he survived because he was
wearing two armours. She, however, went on striking until her wounds counted twelve.
Musab bin Umair, in his turn, fought
fiercely and violently defending the Prophet [pbuh] against the attacks of Ibn Qamia
and his fellows. He was carrying the standard with his right hand. In the process of
fighting, it was cut off, so he grabbed the standard in his left hand till this was also
amputated so he knelt down and shielded it with his chest and neck. Ibn Qamia then
killed him, mistaking him for the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] on account of resemblance in
appearance. Only then did Ibn Qamia shout Muhammad [pbuh] has been
killed.[Ibn Hisham 2/73; Za'd
No sooner had Ibn Qamia uttered that ominous
sentence than consternation spread among Muhammad [pbuh]s followers, and their
morale was drastically reduced. Consequently, confusion and a miserable state of disorder
prevailed amongst them. Whilst the rumours managed to adversely act amongst the Muslims,
it alleviated the sharp impact of the assaults of the polytheists who came to believe that
they did really achieve their final objective and so they turned towards mutilating the
When Musab was killed, the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] delivered the standard to Ali bin Abi Talib. Ali, in conjunction with
the other Companions, went on fighting bravely and set marvellous examples of heroism,
courage and endurance in both defence and attack.
Then the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] made his way to
his encircled army. Kab bin Malik, who was the first one to recognize the
approaching Prophet [pbuh], shouted as loudly as he could: "O folks of Muslims, be
cherished! The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] is here." But the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] signed to him to stop lest his position should be located by the idolaters. Upon
hearing the shout, the Muslims immediately raced towards the source of the shout which
brought about thirty Companions to gather around the Prophet [pbuh]. With this assembled
number of his Companions, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] started drawing a planned
withdrawal to the hillocks nearby.
Hostilities of the enemy grew fiercer than ever with
the aim of foiling the plan of withdrawal of the Muslims. Their attempts however proved to
be fruitless due to the heroic steadfastness of the lions of Islam.
Uthman bin Abdullah bin Al-Mugheerah
one of the enemy horsemen progressed towards the Messenger of All‚h
while saying: "Either I kill him (i.e. Muhammad [pbuh]) or I will be killed."
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] moved to encounter him but his mare tripped into some
holes. So Al-Harith bin As-Simma combated with the enemy, and struck him on his leg so he
went lame, then he finished him off, took his arm and overtook the Messenger of All‚h
But later on another Makkan horseman, called
Abdullah bin Jabir, attacked Al-Harith bin As-Simma, and struck him on the shoulder
with his sword and he was carried to the camp of the Muslims suffering from serious
wounds. Anyway that very idolater did not escape death, for Abu Dujana the red
head-banded hero and adventurer struck him heavily and cut his head off.
During this bitter fight, a desire to sleep
overwhelmed the Muslims that was a security and tranquillity to help His slave
Muslims as the Qur‚n spoke in this context. Abu Talhah said: "I was one of
those who were possessed by a desire to sleep on Uhud Day. On that day my sword fell off
my hand several times. Again and again it fell down and again and again I picked it
up."[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/582]
In a regular withdrawal and with great bravery and
boldness, the Muslims finally retreated to the cover of Mountain Uhud. Then, the rest of
the army followed them to that safe position. In this manner, the genius of Muhammad
[pbuh] foiled that of Khalid bin Al-Waleed.
Ibn Ishaq related that: "When the Messenger of
All‚h [pbuh] was going up the hillock, he was followed by Ubai bin Khalaf who was saying:
Where is Muhammad [pbuh]? Either I kill him or I will be killed. The
Companions of Muhammad [pbuh] said: O Messenger of All‚h, do you mind if one of us
combats with him? But the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said: Leave him! So
when he drew nearer, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] took the spear from Al-Harith bin
As-Simma. He shivered violently in such a way that made all of them scatter in all
directions violently and impulsively. Then he faced him, observed his clavicle through a
gap between the wide opening of the armour and the part of his neck enclosed by. He
speared him in that spot. The effect of the stroke was so strong that it made him roll off
his horse over and over. When he returned to Quraish, they found that he had only had a
small scratch in his neck. So when blood became congested he said: By
Muhammad has killed me. Hearing him say so, they said: By All‚h you are
afraid to death. By All‚h, you are possessed by a devil. He replied: He had
already told me when we were in Makkah: I will kill you. By All‚h, had he
spate on me, he would have killed me. Eventually, the enemy of All‚h breathed his
last at a place called Sarif, while they were taking him back to Makkah."[Ibn Hisham 2/84; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/97] In a version by
Abul-Aswad, on the authority of Urwa: He was lowing
like a bull and saying: "By the One in Whose Hand is my soul, if (the pain) I am
suffering from now were distributed among the people of Al-Majaz, it would cause them to
die."[Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool
During the withdrawal of the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] up to the cover of the mountain, a big rock blocked his way. The Prophet
tried to mount it, but having worn a short heavy armour, and being seriously wounded
he could not ascend it. Readily enough Talha sat in a position that enabled the
Prophet [pbuh] to stand on his back. Then he lifted him up till he stood on it. The
Prophet [pbuh] then said: "Talha, after this job, is eligible for the Garden
(Paradise)."[Ibn Hisham 2/86]
When the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] settled down in
his head quarters in the hillock, the idolaters started their last attack upon the
Muslims. Ibn Ishaq related that: "While the Prophet [pbuh] was on the way to the
hillock, a group of Quraishite elite ascended the mountain. They were led by Khalid bin
Al-Waleed and Abu Sufyan. So the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] implored his Lord saying:
O All‚h, they (i.e. the idolaters) should not be higher (i.e. in position or in
power) than us (i.e. the Muslims). Therefore Umar bin Al-Khattab and some of the
Emigrants fought the idolaters till they drove them down the mountain.[Ibn Hisham 2/86]
In Al-Maghazi a book by Al-Umawi
it is stated that the idolaters went up the mountain. So the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] said to Sad: "Drive them off." "How can I drive them off by
myself (i.e. without anyone to assist)." But the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] repeated
the phrase three times. Sad then took an arrow out of his quiver, shot it at one of
them and killed him. He said: "Then I took another one I know (to be good) and I shot
with it another man. Then I took a third I know and killed a third one. Consequently they
climbed down the mountain. I said to myself, this must be a blessed arrow. I
put it in my quiver." He kept it with him till he died. His children kept it with
them ever after. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/95]
That was the last attack made by the idolaters
against the Prophet [pbuh]. Being almost certain of his death, the idolaters returned to
their camp and started preparations to go back to Makkah. Some of them involved themselves
in mutilating the killed Muslims, and so did their women. Women and men cut off the ears,
the noses, the genitals of the martyrs. They even cut open their bellies. Hind bin
Utbah for instance ripped open the liver of Hamzah and chewed it; but
finding it unpleasant, she spat it out. She even made the ears and noses of Muslims into
anklets and necklaces. [Ibn Hisham
Two incidents occurred during the last hours of the
fight. Which revealed for certain how far the Muslims were ready to fight and sacrifice in
the way of All‚h:
- Kab bin Malik said: I was one of those Muslims who fought in
Uhud and witnessed the polytheists act of barbarity in mutilating the dead bodies,
but I passed them because I couldnt stand it. Then I saw an armed stout idolater
pass through the Muslims and say: "Gather them up and combine them in the way that
sheep are gathered and slaughtered." Similarly I saw an armed Muslim waiting for him.
I walked towards them till I stood behind him. Comparing both of them, I found that the
disbeliever was better than the other in arms and figure. I kept on watching them till
they were engaged in single combat. The Muslim thrust at the disbeliever with his sword
that went down his hip and split it into two. When the Muslim unveiled his face, he said:
"What about that, Kab. I am Abu Dujana." [Al-Bidaya wan Nihaya 4/17]
- Some Muslim women came to the battlefield when the fight was over.
Anas said: I saw Aishah bint Abu Bakr [R] with Umm Sulaim.
Their garments were gathered up so I could see their anklets. They carried water bags on
their shoulders and emptied them into the mouths of people.
[Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/403, 2/581]
Then they would go back to fill them and come back to do the same.
Umar said: "Umm Saleet used to carry water bags to us on Uhud Day." [ibid 1/401]
When Umm Aiman, who was one of those Muslim women
who saw the defeated Muslim fighters entering Madinah, she started throwing dust at their
faces rebukingly saying: "Here is a spinning wheel, take it! and give up carrying
swords." Then she raced to the battlefield. There she watered the wounded. Hibban bin
Al-Arqa shot an arrow at her, she fell down and her clothes were lifted up. Seeing
that, the enemy of All‚h, burst into laughter. That sight upset the Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh], so he gave Sad bin Abi Waqqas an arrow lacking an arrow-head and said
"Shoot it". Sad shot it, it pierced the idolaters throat. He fell
down and some parts of his body were revealed. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] then laughed
so much that his molars could be seen. Sad avenged her and All‚h responded to her
supplication. [As-Seerat Al-Halabiyah
As soon as the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] reached
the defile, Ali bin Abu Talib went out and filled his water container with water
from Al-Mihras. Al-Mihras is said to be hollow (concaved) rock
containing plenty of water. It was also said that it is a water spring in Uhud mountain.
Anyway, Ali brought that water to the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] to drink. Finding
that it smelt bad he refused to drink it, but only washed the blood off his face and
poured some of it over his head saying: All‚hs Wrath is great on those who
besmeared His Messengers face with blood. [Ibn Hisham 2/85]
Sahl said: "By All‚h, I know who washed the
wound of the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] and who poured out water for him and what
(substances) his wound was treated with: His daughter Fatimah washed it, whereas Ali
poured water out of the container. When Fatimah realized that water increased the flow of
blood, she took a piece of straw mat, burnt it a little and stuck it to the wound so blood
ceased flowing." [Sahih Al-Bukhari
Muhammad bin Maslamah brought him fresh water to
drink. The Prophet [pbuh] drank and supplicated All‚h to provide him with good things.
Al-Halabiyah 2/30] Owing to the wounds and their bad effects on
his body, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] led his followers in prayer in a sitting posture
and so did the Muslims. [Ibn Hisham
When the preparations of the idolaters for departure
came to an end, Abu Sufyan went up the mountain and called out: "Is Muhammad
among you?" They did not answer him. Then he asked "Is Ibn Abi Quhafah (i.e. Abu
Bakr) among you?" They did not answer. He asked again: "Is Umar bin
Al-Khattab among you?" They did not answer him; for the Prophet [pbuh] forbade them
answering him. He only asked about those three. That is because he and his people knew
quite well that the call to Islam depended to a large degree on those men. Abu Sufyan then
said: "As for those three, we have relieved you of." Umar could not help
but talking, so he said, "O enemy of All‚h, those whom you have just mentioned, I
tell you that they are still alive. All‚h has maintained what you hate." Abu Sufyan
answered: "The mutilation of your killed is something I did not order it; but it did
not displease me." Then he shouted: "Hubal (an idol), let it be sublime!"
The Prophet [pbuh] said: "Why do you not reply?" "What shall we say?"
They asked him. "Say: All‚h is more Sublime and Exalted and Mightier as well."
He said: "Al-Uzza (i.e. an idol) is ours
but you have no Uzza." "Why do you not reply?" The Prophet
said. "What shall we say?" They inquired. He said: "Say All‚h is our
Protector, but you have no protector."
Abu Sufyan said: "Well deeds! Today is a
vengeance for Badr Day. This for that. War is attended with alternate success."
Umars reply was: "No. They are not the same. Our killed men are housed in
Paradise; but yours are in Fire."
Then Abu Sufyan said: "Come on,
Umar!" The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said: "Go and see what the matter
is." He went there. Abu Sufyan asked him: "I beseech you by All‚hs Name
to tell me the truth: Have we killed Muhammad [pbuh]?" Umar said: "O
All‚h, No and now he is listening to you words." He said: "For me,
you are more truthful than Ibn Qamia, and even more reliable."
2/93,94; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/94; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/579]
Ibn Ishaq said: When Abu Sufyan and those who were
with him were leaving he called out notifying: "We will meet again at Badr next
year." The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said to one of his men: "Say: Yes,
it is an appointment for both of us." [Ibn Hisham 2/94]
Later on, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] dispatched
Ali bin Abi Talib to trace them out. He said to him: "Pursue them and see what
they are going to do, and what they aim at. If they dismount horses and ride on
camels back, this means that they are heading for Makkah; but if they ride horses
and lead camels unmounted, they are leaving for Madinah. By the One, in Whose Hand my soul
is, if they attacked Madinah I would march to them there and I would fight them."
Ali said: "I went out and traced them to see what they were up to. I saw them
mounting camels and leaving the horses unmounted. They were heading for Makkah."
[Ibn Hisham 2/94]
After the departure of the Quraishites, people went
out to check the identity of the killed and the wounded. Zaid bin Thabit said: "The
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] sent me on Uhud Day to seek Sad bin Ar-RabÓ and
said: "When you see him, say: peace be upon you from me. and say to him
the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] says: How do you feel?" Zaid said: "I
started wandering about checking the killed till I came across Sad when he was dying
with about seventy strokes or stabs of a sword, a spear and an arrow in his body.So
I said: "O Sad, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] sends you his greetings. and
says peace be upon you, tell me how do you feel?" Sad said:
"And let peace be upon the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh], too. Tell him, I smell the
scent of the Paradise. And tell the Helpers, my people, you shall not be excused
before All‚h if the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] is hurt and your eyes are blinking
(i.e. you are still alive and not dead)." Then he died. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/96]
They came across Al-Usairim Amr bin
Thabit, whom they had already urged to embrace Islam but refused. They saw him among the
wounded on the verge of close death. "What has he come here for? We have parted with
him and he was still too obdurate to accept Islam as his religion". They asked him:
"What made you come here? Is it out of zeal to defend your people or is it because of
an inclination to Islam?" He said: "It is (certainly) an inclination to Islam. I
believe in All‚h and in His Messenger. I have fought with the Messenger of All‚h
till I have got what you see," and then he immediately died. They told the Messenger
of All‚h [pbuh] about him. Hearing that, he said: "He is one of the inhabitants of
Paradise." "Although he had not offered one single prayer," narrated Abu
Al-Ma'ad 2/94; Ibn Hisham 2/90]
Qazman, who was found among the wounded, fought
heroically, and killed seven or eight idolaters. He was weakened by the wounds he had
sustained, they carried him to the habitation of Bani Zufr. The Muslims gave him glad
tidings of the Paradise. But he said: "By All‚h I have fought out of a zeal to my
people. Had it not been for that I would have never fought." When his wounds worsened
he committed suicide. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] had already said whenever he was
mentioned to him: "He is an inhabitant of Fire."
[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/97; Ibn Hisham 2/88] This is the end of those who fight for a national cause or in a way other
than that of raising up the Word of All‚h, though they fought under the banner of Islam
or even in the army of the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] or of his Companions.
Contrary to Qazman there was a Jew of Bani
Thalabah among the killed. He said to his people, "O folk people of Jews! By
All‚h you have already known that it is imperative to support Muhammad [pbuh]." They
said: "Today is Saturday." He said: "There is no Saturday for you." He
took his sword and the war equipment and said: "If I were killed, my property should
be put at Muhammad [pbuh]s disposal". Then next morning he kept on fighting
till he was killed. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said about him, "Mukhaireeq is the
best Jew." [Ibn Hisham 2/88,89]
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] supervised the
martyrs burial and said: "I bear witness that anyone who is wounded in the way
of All‚h, All‚h will resurrect him with his wound bleeding a liquid which is blood-like
in colour but musk-like in scent."
[Ibn Hisham 2/98]
Some of the Companions carried their men killed in
the war to Madinah, but the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] ordered that they should be sent
back in order to be buried where they were killed. He ordered that they should not be
washed but buried as they were after stripping them off their armours and leather clothes.
He used to bury every two or three martyrs together in one grave and even join two men in
one garment while saying: "Who is the more learned of the Qur‚n?" and he
would commit him to earth first. He would say: "I bear witness to those on the Day of
Resurrection." He buried both Abdullah bin Amr bin Haram and Amr
bin Al-Jamuh in one grave due to the affection they used to possess to each other. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/98; Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/584]
They missed the coffin of Hanzalah, they sought it
and found that it was on a spot nearby with water dripping off it. The Messenger of All‚h
[pbuh] told his Companions that the angels were washing him and said: "Ask his
wife". They asked her and she confirmed that he had been in a state of ceremonial
impurity. That was why Hanzalah was called Ghaseel Al-Mal‚ikah
(i.e. the one washed by the angels).
[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/94]
When the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] saw how his
uncle and foster brother, Hamzah, was mutilated, he was extremely grieved. When his aunt
Safiyah came to see her brother Hamzah, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] ordered her son
Az-Zubair to dismiss her in order not to see what happened to her brother. She refused and
said, "But why should I go away. I have been informed that they have mutilated him.
But so long as it is in the way of All‚h, whatever happens to him satisfies us. I say:
All‚h is Sufficient and I will be patient if All‚h wills." She approached, looked
at him and supplicated All‚h for him and said: "To All‚h we all belong and to Him
we will verily return." and she implored All‚h to forgive him. Then the Messenger of
All‚h [pbuh] ordered that he should be buried with Abdullah bin Jahsh who
was his nephew as well as his foster brother.
Ibn Masud said: We have never seen the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] weeping so much as he was for Hamzah bin Abdul
He directed him towards Al-Qiblah, then he stood at his funeral and sobbed his
heart out. [Mukhtasar Seerat Ar-Rasool
The sight of the martyrs was extremely horrible and
heart-breaking. Describing Hamzahs funeral, Khabbab said: "No shroud long
enough was available for Hamzah except a white-darkish garment. When they covered his head
with it, it was too short to cover his feet. Similarly if they covered his feet his head
would be revealed. Finally they covered his head with it and put some plant called Al-Idhkhir
to cover his feet." [Mishkat
Al-Imam Ahmad reported that when it was Uhud Day and
the time that the idolaters returned, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said:
form rows as for prayer) so that I offer thanks and praise to my Lord, the Great and the
So they stood in rows behind him. Then he said:
"O All‚h, no one can
withhold what You permit or permit what You withhold. No one can guide whom You decree to
go astray or make go astray the one whom You guide. No one can grant provisions you have
withheld and no one can withhold what you grant. No one can near what You ordained to be
distant, or detach what You decree to be close. O All‚h, spread onto all of us Your
Mercy, Your Grace, and Provisions."
"O All‚h, I implore
You to grant me permanent bliss that neither changes nor vanishes. O All‚h, You Alone we
seek for Help at hardships. You Alone we resort to for security on a day of terror. O
All‚h, to You Alone I resort to protect us from the evils of Your grants (i.e. the evils
they may lead us to) and from the evils of Your deprivation. O All‚h, make us love Faith
and make it pleasant and beloved wholeheartedly by us! Make disbelief, ungodliness and
disobedience detestable to us. Let us be among those who are rightly guided. O All‚h,
make us live as Muslims and cause us to die as Muslims; and make us join with the
righteous but not with the disgraced and misled ones. O All‚h, make Your enmity befall
the disbelievers, who belie Your Messenger and divert from Your righteous way. O All‚h,
let Your wrath, Your chastisement and Your enmity befall the disbelievers, and those on
whom You sent down the Book. Let them be afflicted with war decreed by You. O All‚h, the
Author of Truth." [Musnad
Imam Ahmad 3/424]
After committing all the martyrs to earth, and after
offering praise and supplication to All‚h, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] went back to
On his way back, matchless examples of love and
devotion were revealed by the truthful women believers; in no way less great than the
mens heroic deeds in the fight.
Hamnah bint Jahsh met the Messenger of All‚h
on the way back, and he announced the death of her brother Abdullah bin Jahsh
to her. She said: "To All‚h we belong and to Him we will verily return. I ask
All‚hs forgiveness." Then he announced the death of her maternal uncle Hamzah
bin Abdul Muttalib. She said: "To All‚h we belong and to Him we will verily
return. I ask All‚hs forgiveness." But when he announced the death of her
husband Musab bin Umair to her, she shouted and woed. Seeing her doing so, the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said: "The womans husband is extremely dear to
her." [Ibn Hisham 2/98]
He passed by a woman of Bani Dinar whose husband,
father and brother were all killed at Uhud. When their death announced, she said:
"How is the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] ?" They said: "Well indeed. O mother
of so... Thanks for All‚h; he is well and as good as you desire." She said:
"Let me see him." They pointed at him. Seeing him she said: "All
misfortunes are nothing so long as you are safe." [Ibn Hisham 2/99]
Umm Sad bin Muadh came running to see
the Prophet [pbuh]. At that time her son was holding the rein of his mare. Seeing his
mother, he said to the Prophet [pbuh]: "O Messenger of All‚h [pbuh]. This is my
mother." The Prophet [pbuh] said: "She is welcome"; and he stopped and
waited for her. When she drew near, he consoled her, for her killed son Amr bin
Muadh. But she said: "So long as I see you are safe, my misfortune will
certainly go into oblivion." Then the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] supplicated All‚h
for the relatives of those who were killed at Uhud and said: "Cheer up! Umm Sad
and bear good tidings to their kindred that all their people killed in the battle are
comrades in Paradise and they are intercessors for all their kinsfolk." She replied,
"O Messenger of All‚h, we are satisfied. Who would cry on them after this cheerful
news?" Then she resumed saying: "O Messenger of All‚h, invoke All‚h (for those
who stayed behind)" He said: "O All‚h keep sorrow off their hearts! And console
them with their misfortunes. Compensate those who stayed behind with goodness and
welfare." [As-Seerat Al-Halabiyah
In the evening of that day i.e. Saturday, the
seventh of Shawwal, 3rd year A.H. the Messenger arrived in Madinah. As soon as he
reached his house, he handed his sword to his daughter Fatimah and said: "O daughter,
wash the blood off this sword. By All‚h it has been helpful to me today." Ali
bin Abi Talib handed her his sword and said: "And wash the blood of this sword too.
By All‚h, it has been helpful to me today." So the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said:
"Sahl bin Haneef and Abu Dujana have been as courageous as you are in the
Most of the narrations confirmed that seventy
Muslims were killed and most of them, sixty-five, Helpers; forty-one of whom were from
Khazraj and twenty-four from Aws. This, besides one Jew and four Emigrants.
As for the polytheists, twenty-two of them were
killed, but some versions speak of thirty-seven; after all, All‚h knows best. [Ibn Hisham 2/122-129;
Fath Al-Bari 7/351]
On Saturday night, the eighth of Shawwal, and after
their return from Uhud, the Muslims spent that night in an emergency case though
they were dead-beat, extremely exhausted. They stayed on the alert, and spent that night
guarding the outlets and inlets of Madinah. They were specially busy guarding their
general leader, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] for fear that some suspects could commit an
The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] on his part, spent
the night pondering over the situation. He feared that the idolaters might think
while they were still on their way to Makkah of reversing their way and diverting
to Madinah after they had realized that they had availed nothing of that victory. They
might regret and decide to invade Madinah as a compensation. Therefore the Messenger of
All‚h [pbuh] was determined to go out in pursuit of the Makkan army.
The Prophet [pbuh] called out unto people and
ordered them to march to encounter the enemy of Islam. That was on Sunday morning
next day to Uhud the eighth of Shawwal. He said: "Nobody will march to the
fight except those who have already participated in Uhud fight." Abdullah bin
Ubai said: "I will march out with you." "No," said the Prophet
Whilst the Muslims were suffering a lot from painful
pains and deep anxiety, they responded to his call positively. Jabir bin Abdullah
implored the Prophet [pbuh] to allow him join them in that fresh invasion on account that
he always had a liking to witness all the battles that the Prophet [pbuh] was involved in.
He had not participated in Uhud because his father asked him to stay in Madinah with his
sisters . And he was granted his wish.
The Muslims marched out until they reached a place
called Hamra Al-Asad about eight miles from Madinah. He encamped there. In
that place Mabad bin Abi Mabad came to the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] and
professed Islam. Some people said that he remained an idolater; he simply desired to give
the Messenger some advice out of abidance by a covenant between Khuzaah (his tribe)
and Bani Hashim. He said "O Muhammad [pbuh]! By All‚h, we feel great sorrow for what
had happened to you and to your Companions. We really hope you will not suffer
again." So, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] suggested that he overtake Abu Sufyan and
discourage him from pursuing his evil intentions.
The Messengers fears of a possible return of
the idolaters proved to be absolutely true. For no sooner had the idolaters dismounted and
encamped at Ar-Rawh‚ a place thirty-six miles from Madinah, than they
started reproaching one another. A group of them said to another one: "You did
nothing. You broke down their force but you left them. There are still some distinguished
men among them who will probably gather people up to fight you again. So let us go back
and annihilate them and crush down their forces."
It was in fact a hasty decision taken by
shallow-minded people who misjudged the potential power and morale on both parties, that
is why an eminent leader of Quraish, Safwan bin Omaiyah, tried to dissuade his people from
pursuing that venture, saying: "O people. Do not do such a thing! For I fear that he
will gather up those who had stayed behind and did not share in Uhud. Go back home as
winners. For I am not sure of what turn will the consequences take if you get involved in
such a fight. It might be to your prejudice in the final place." Notwithstanding that
weighty argument, the majority of the polytheists were determined to embark on that risky
Mabad bin Abu Mabad meanwhile arrived on
the scene and tried to exaggerate the danger awaiting them in order to thwart their plan,
he said: "Muhammad [pbuh] has marched to meet you with a large host of fighters, I
have never seen something similar to it before. He has mustered all the troops who have
tarried and did not share in Uhud. They surely regret what they have missed and want to
compensate for it now. Their hearts are filled with hate and resentment." Abu Sufyan
said: "Woe to you! What do you suggest?" He said: "By All‚h, I see that
you would not leave till he comes and you see the heads of their horses; or till the
vanguard of his army turns up to you from behind that hill."
Abu Sufyan said: "By All‚h, we have reached a
common consent to crush down the Muslims and their power." The man, once more with an
implied warning, advised him to stop it.
In the light of this news, the resolution and
determination of the Makkan army failed and panic and terror took firm hold of them. They
consequently deemed it safest to complete there withdrawal back to Makkah. They, however,
as an alternative, started a hostile nerve propaganda aiming at dissuading the Muslims
army from pursuing them. A caravan belonging to Abd Qais happened to pass by towards
Madinah. Abu Sufyan, in the context of his propaganda, asked them to communicate a message
to Muhammad [pbuh] to the effect that the Makkans had rallied their ranks to annihilate
the Messenger and his Companions, in return Abu Sufyan promised to give the people of the
caravan loads of raisins at the forum of Ukaz the following year.
The people of the caravan conveyed the message to
the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] at Hamr‚ Al-Asad, but to no effect, on the contrary,
Abu Sufyans words augmented them in Faith. All‚h says:
said: All‚h (Alone) is Sufficient for us, and He is the Best Disposer of affairs
(for us). So they turned with Grace and Bounty from All‚h. No harm touched them; and they
followed the good Pleasure of All‚h. And All‚h is the Owner of Great Bounty."
After the arrival of the caravan on Sunday, the
Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] stayed at Hamr‚ Al-Asad for three days Monday,
Tuesday and Wednesday 9-11 Shawwal, 3 A.H. and then returned to Madinah. Before his
return, he took Abu Azza Al-Jumahi as a prisoner of war. Incidentally, this man had
also been captured at Badr but on account of his poverty, and the large family he
supported, the Prophet [pbuh] had been gracious enough to release him on condition that he
would not involve himself in war against the Muslims again. Abu Azza did not keep
his promise and took part in Uhud hostilities on the side of the polytheists. Here again
he implored Muhammad [pbuh] for pardon but the latter told him that a believer
wouldnt be taken twice in the same snare. He then deservedly merited the sentence of
death which was executed by Az-Zubair or, in another version, by Asim bin
A Makkan spy, called Muawiyah bin Al-Mugheerah
bin Abi Al-As, was sentenced to death too. This spy was the grandfather of
Abdul Malik bin Marwan on his mother side. When the idolaters went back after
Muawiyah came to his paternal cousin Uthman bin Affan —÷ž «ŠŠŚ
ŕšŚ. Uthman gave him shelter after securing the Prophet [pbuh]s
permission on condition that if he was caught there after three days, he would be
killed. But he did not comply with it, so when the Muslim army left Madinah, he stayed
there for more than three days during which he was spying for Quraish. So when the army
returned, Muawiyah fled out of Madinah. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh], on this
account, ordered Zaid bin Harithah and Ammar bin Yasir to pursue him and kill him.
So he was killed. [Ibn
Hisham 2/60-129; Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/91-108; Fath Al-Bari 7/345-377; Mukhtasar Seerat
Undoubtedly, the invasion of Hamr‚ Al-Asad is
not a separate invasion, but rather a part, or more specifically, a sequel to
That was Uhud Invasion with all its stages and
details. It has for long been discussed by scholars and men of research. Was it a defeat
or not? Doubtlessly, the military superiority in the second phase of the battle was in
favour of the polytheists who could successfully direct the steering mechanism of
hostilities and inflict heavy losses in lives on the Muslims. Admittedly, a part of the
believers were clearly defeated, but this could never be considered a Makkan victory.
The Makkan army failed to occupy the camp of the
Muslims. The greater bulk of the Madinese army, chaos and confusion notwithstanding, did
not take to escape, on the contrary they showed matchless and heroic resistance and
managed to gather themselves again around their headquarters fighting bravely and
courageously. They, moreover, did not allow the Makkans to run after them in pursuit.
Neither Muslim captives were taken nor spoils were gained by the Makkans. The enemies of
Islam were also too cowardly to conduct the third phase of war, and impress their
superiority on the battlefield, on the contrary, they were in hot haste to evacuate the
field even before the Muslims did. Madinah itself, the capital of the Muslims, was only a
stones throw from the lines of the enemy, and vulnerably exposed, yet the
polytheists were not bold enough to storm it to plunder its wealth or capture the Muslim
These suggestive details in fact support our
argument that the event of Uhud was just a precious occasion on which the Makkans managed
only to inflict heavy losses on the Muslims but failed to achieve their ultimate goals of
annihilating the Muslim army in the process of their encompassment operation. After all,
it is not unusual for conquerors to sustain such casualties and losses, but these could
under no circumstances be regarded as victory for the hostile party.
The incident of Hamr‚ Al-Asad is interesting
in this regard. It is a curious sight indeed of a victorious army in retreat for fear of
disgrace and defeat, and the crestfallen and crippled group of Muslims in pursuit.
Uhud Battle in the final judgement was just one
phase of military activities in the whole process of war between two hostile parties each
of whom earned their legitimate portion of both success and failure and then desisted
further engagement but without cowardly escape or resigned surrender. In this sense, this
battle could be rightly regarded as an inseparable war.
In this context, All‚h says:
be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering (hardships) then surely, they
(too) are suffering (hardships) as you are suffering, but you have a hope from All‚h (for
the reward, i.e. Paradise) that for which they hope not." [Al-Qur'an
The verse explicitly identifies both attitudes as
regards losses and hardships as identical. Both parties concluded the war operations and
went back neither victorious nor vanquished.
Some Qur‚nic verses were revealed to shed
light on the most decisive phases of the battle successively, adduce quite clearly the
cause that led to that heavy loss, and illustrate the vulnerable areas that were still
persisting in the souls of some believers as regards their duties in forging a decisive
attitude with respect to the noble objectives for which the Muslim Community, was created
and was supposed to accomplish.
The Noble Qur‚n also spoke about the attitude
of the pretenders to Faith and made clear the hostility and hatred that they harboured
against All‚h and His Messenger. The Words of All‚h managed as well to erase all traces
of ambiguities and insinuations, raised by the hypocrites and their allies, the Jews
the authors of conspiracy and intrigue hatching and which were still in
active operation in the hearts of some weak-of-heart Muslims.
The laudable judgement and long-sought objectives
that were attributable to the battle of Uhud, were also another topic for the Noble
Qur‚n to dwell on at length. Sixty verses relevant to the battle were revealed
giving full account of the first phase of the battle:
when you (Muhammad [pbuh]) left your household in the morning to post the believers at
their stations for the battle (of Uhud)." [Al-Qur'an 3:121]
And to end in a comprehensive commentary on its
results and moralities:
"All‚h will not
leave the believers in the state in which you are now, until He distinguishes the wicked
from the good. Nor will All‚h disclose to you the secrets of the Ghaib (unseen),
but All‚h chooses of His Messengers whom He pleases. So believe in All‚h and His
Messengers. And if you believe and fear All‚h, then for you there is a great
reward." [Al-Qur'an 3:179]
Ibn Al-Qaiyim has made a pointed reference to the
battle of Uhud and given full elucidation of the Divine benefits and moralities that
resulted from it. Some Muslim scholars, on the authority of Ibn Hajar, said: The reverse
in Uhud resulted from the neglect on the part of the archers of the explicit command of
the Prophet [pbuh], and leaving the spot which they were ordered to safeguard to the end.
In other words, the success of the Muslims depends upon their obedience to the Prophet
[pbuh]. As long as they carry out his behests, All‚h will help them in facing all kinds
of odds. But when they will set aside his commands in their pursuit of worldly riches,
they are bound to come to grief. Another relevant issue of great significance says that it
is customary for Prophets to be tried with different adversities; nevertheless, the final
outcome is positively in their favour. Should the Muslims be victorious all the time,
great many pretenders to Faith will enter the fold of Islam, and consequently the clear
line of demarcation between true believers and hypocrites will become blurred. Contrarily,
if the Muslims were to be defeated all the time, the final objective of the ministry of
Prophets will not be effected. It is wise then to combine both success and failure so that
sifting between true Muslims and hypocrites could be realized.
In the aftermath of the battle of Uhud, the
hypocrites disclosed their real intentions in words and in deeds, consequently, the
Muslims got to realize the existence of those wicked elements working secretly in their
own homeland; and of course there would be appropriate measures to be taken in due course
A third point in this context refers to purposeful
deferment of victory in some areas in order to check the pride of the soul and teach the
believers how to observe full patience in times of adversity. Trials and tests are
provided by All‚h in order that the true believers could deservedly occupy their abode in
the blessed Hereafter. Martyrdom, the highest ranks that the true friends of All‚h could
occupy, is provided by All‚h to function as a passport, granted by the Lord, leading to
Paradise. In brief, fight in the cause of All‚h is a golden opportunity for the true
believers to have their sins effaced, and a Divinely-devised event for the disbelievers
and enemies of All‚h to face destruction and annihilation in recompense for their
disbelief, tyranny and transgression. [Za'd