Missions and Platoons

After the Conquest

Upon returning from this long successful travel, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] stayed in Madinah where he received delegates and dispatched agents and appointed preachers and callers to Islam everywhere. Those whose hearts were still full of prejudice against Islam and therefore were too proud to embrace All‚h’s religion, were decisively muffled on their non-acquiescence in the status quo prevalent then in Arabia.

Here is a mini-image about the believed ones. We have already stated that the Messenger’s arrival in Madinah was by the last days of the eighth year of Al-Hijra. No sooner the crescent of Muharram of the ninth year turned up than the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] dispatched the believed ones, to the tribes as shown in the list below:

1. ‘Uyaina bin Hisn to Bani Tamim.
2. Yazeed bin Husain to Aslam and Ghifar.
3. ‘Abbad bin Bishr Al-Ashhali to Sulaim and Muzainah.
4. Rafi‘ bin Mukaith to Juhainah.
5. ‘Amr bin Al-‘As to Bani Fazarah.
6. Ad-Dahhak bin Sufyan to Bani Kilab.
7. Basheer bin Sufyan to Bani Ka‘b.
8. Ibn Al-Lutabiyah Al-Azdi to Bani Dhubyan.
9. Al-Muhajir bin Abi Omaiyah to Sana‘a’ (Al-Aswad Al-‘Ansi called at him when he was in it).
10. Ziyad bin Labid to Hadramout.
11. ‘Adi bin Hatim to Tai’ and Bani Asad.
12. Malik bin Nuwairah to Bani Hanzalah.
13. Az-Zabraqan bin Badr to Bani Sa‘d (a portion of them).
14. Qais bin ‘Asim to Bani Sa‘d (a portion of them).
15. Al-‘Al‚’ bin Al-Hadrami to Al-Bahrain.
16. ‘Ali bin Abi Talib to Najran (to collect Sadaqa & Jizya).

Some of these agents were despatched in Muharram, 7 A.H., others were sent later until the tribes they were heading for had completely converted into Islam. Such a move clearly demonstrates the great success that the Islamic Da‘wah (Call) enjoyed after Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty. However, shortly after the conquest of Makkah, people began to embrace Islam in large hosts.

The Platoons

In the same way that the believed ones were dispatched to the tribes, we understand that dispatching some more platoons to all regions of Arabia is a necessity for the prevalence and domination of security on all lands of Arabia.

Here is a list of those platoons:

  1. ‘Uyaina bin Hisn Al-Fazari’s platoon in Al-Muharram, the ninth year of Al-Hijra to Bani Tamim. It consisted of fifty horsemen, none of them was an Emigrant or a Helper.

    This expedition was dispatched due to the fact that Bani Tamim had already urged other tribes not to pay tribute (Al-Jizya) and eventually stopped them from paying it.

    Therefore, ‘Uyaina bin Hisn set out to fight them. All the way long he marched by night and lurked by day. He went on that way till he overtook them and attacked them in the desert. They fled back for their lives. Eleven men, twenty-one women and thirty boys were captured then. He drove them back to Madinah and were housed in Ramlah bint Al-Harith’s residence. Ten of their leaders, who came to the Prophet’s door, called out unto him saying: "O Muhammad come out and face us." When he went out they held him and started talking.

    He exchanged talk with them for a while then left them and went to perform the noon-prayer. After prayer he sat in the mosque-patio. They proclaimed a desire to show boasting and self-pride. For this purpose they introduced their orator ‘Utarid bin Hajib who delivered his speech. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] asked Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas — the Muslim orator — to respond. He did that. In return, they brought forth their poet Az-Zabraqan bin Badr who recited some boastful poetry. Hassan bin Thabit, the poet of Islam, promptly replied back. When talks and poetry came to an end, Al-Aqra‘ bin Habis said: "Their orator is more eloquent than ours, and their poet is more poetically learned than ours. Their voices and sayings excel ours, as well." Eventually they announced their embracing Islam. Consequently, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] acknowledged their Islamization, awarded them well, and rendered them back their women and children.

  2. A platoon headed by Qutbah bin ‘Amir to a spot called Khath‘am in Tabalah, a plot of land not far from Turbah. That was in Safar, 9 A.H. Accompanied by twenty men and only ten camels to mount alternatively on, Qutbah raided them and fought so fiercely that a great number of both parties were wounded and some others were killed. The Muslims drove back with them camels, women and sheep to Madinah.
  3. The mission of Dahhak bin Sufyan Al-Kilabi to Bani Kilab in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal in the year 9 A.H. This mission was sent to Bani Kilab to call them to embrace Islam. Refusing to embrace Islam, they started to fight against the Muslims, but were defeated and sustained one man killed.
  4. The three hundred men expedition of ‘Alqamah bin Mujazziz Al-Mudlaji to Jeddah shores in Rabi‘ Al-Akhir. This expedition was dispatched to fight against some men from (Al-Habasha) Abyssinia (Ethiopia), who gathered together near the shores of Jeddah and exercised acts of piracy against the Makkans. Therefore he crossed the sea till he got to an island. But as soon as the pirates had learned of Muslims’ arrival, they fled. [Fath Al-Bari 8/59]
  5. The task of the platoon of ‘Ali bin Abi Talib was to demolish Al-Qullus, which was an idol that belonged to Tai’ tribe. That was in Rabi‘ Al-Awwal in the year 9 A.H. ‘Ali was dispatched by the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] with one hundred fifty men. A hundred of them were on camels. The other fifty were on horseback. He held a black flag and a white banner.

    At dawn they raided Mahallat Hatim, demolished the idol and filled their hands with spoils, camels and sheep booties, whereas ‘Adi fled to Ash-Sham. The sister of ‘Adi bin Hatim was one of the captives. Inside Al-Qullus safe, Muslims found three swords and three armours. On the way they distributed the spoils and put aside the best things to the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh]. They did not share the Hatims.

    Upon arrival in Madinah, the sister of ‘Adi bin Hatim begged the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] to have mercy on her and said: "O Messenger of All‚h, my brother is absent and father is dead, and I am too old to render any service. Be beneficent to me so that All‚h may be bountiful to you." He said: "Who is your brother?" She said: "It is ‘Adi bin Hatim." "Is he not the one who fled from All‚h and his Messenger?" Said the Prophet [pbuh] then went away from her. Next day she reiterated the same thing as the day before and received the same answer. A day later she uttered similar words, this time he made benefaction to her. The man who was beside the Prophet, and whom she thought to be ‘Ali, said to her: "Ask for an animal from him to ride on." And she was granted her request.

    She returned to Ash-Sham where she met her brother and said to him: "The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] has done me such noble deed that your father would never have done it. Therefore, willy-nilly, frightened or secure, you should go and see him." Unsecure neither protected by some one, not even recommended by a letter as a means of protection, ‘Adi came and met the Prophet. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] took him home with him. As soon as he sat before him, the Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] thanked All‚h and praised him, then said: "What makes you flee? Do you flee lest you should say there is no god but All‚h? Do you know any other god but All‚h?" "No" he said, then talked for a while. The Messenger of All‚h went on saying: "Certainly you flee so that you may not hear the statement saying ‘All‚h is the Greatest.’ Do you know anyone who is greater than All‚h?" "No" he said. "The Jews are those whose portion is wrath, and the Christians are those who have gone astray," the Prophet retorted. "I am a Muslim and I believe in one God (All‚h)." ‘Adi finally proclaimed with a joyous face. The Prophet ordered him a residence with one of the Helpers. From that time he started calling at the Prophet [pbuh] in the mornings and in the evenings. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/205]

    On the authority of Ibn Ishaq, when the Prophet [pbuh] made him sit down in front of him in his house, the Prophet said, "O ‘Adi, were you not cast in disbelief?" "Yes". ‘Adi said. "Did you not share one quarter of your people’s gains?" "Yes". Said ‘Adi. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] said: "It is sinful in your religion to do such a thing, and you should not allow yourself to do it." "Yes, by All‚h, that is true", said ‘Adi. "Thus I worked out that he was a Prophet inspired by All‚h, and sent to people. He knows what is unknown." [Ibn Hisham 2/581]

    In another version, the Prophet [pbuh] said: "‘Adi, embrace Islam and you shall be secure." "But I am a man of religion." Said ‘Adi. "I know your religion better than you." Said the Prophet. "Do you know my religion better than me?" ‘Adi asked. The Prophet replied, "Yes". He said: "Are you not cast in disbelief because you appropriate to yourself the fourth of your people’s gains?" "Yes". Said ‘Adi. "It is unlawful in your religion to do such a thing." The Prophet said, and ‘‘Adi added: "He did not need to say it again for I immediately acquiesced it." [Musnad Imam Ahmad]

    Al-Bukhari narrates that ‘Adi said: While we were with the Prophet [pbuh], a man came in and complained to him about poverty. Then another man came in and complained about highway robbery. The Messenger of All‚h [pbuh] then said: "O ‘Adi, have you ever been to Al-Hirah? If you were doomed to live long life, you would be able to see a riding camel woman travel from Hirah till it circumambulates Al-Ka‘bah fearing none but All‚h; and if you were to live long enough you would open the treasures of Kisra. And if you were to live long you would be able to see man offering a handful of gold or silver to others but none accepts to take it." At the end of this Hadith ‘Adi later on says: "I have seen a riding camel woman travel from Al-Hirah till it circumambulates the Ka‘bah fearing none but All‚h, I have also been one of those who opened the treasures of Kisra bin Hurmuz. If you were to live long life you would witness what the Prophet, Abul Qasim, [pbuh] had already said about ‘offering a handful of …’ i.e. the Prophet’s prophecies did really come true." [Sahih Al-Bukhari; Mishkat Al-Masabih 2/524]