Evolution or Creation?

Chapter II

Theory of Evolution
and Pre-Adam Creatures

Evolutionists’ Claims

Qur’an Accepts the Challenge

Universal Popularity of Evolution Theory

Islam’s Guidance

Pre-Adam Creations

Adam: Successor to Jinn

Hinns Before Jinns

Unity of God, Not Evolution

Distinction of Islam

Jinns Followed a Shariah

Jinns are Made of Fire

Incomplete Evidence

Types of Fossil Man



Homo erectus

Homo sapiens

Types of Homo sapiens

Neanderthal Man

Neanderthal Man was Different from the Modern Man

Another Mystery about Neanderthal Man

Cro-Magnon Man

Does Cro-Magnon Man Exit?

Who is Adam?

Evolution is Proofless

Divinity and Denial of Evolution

Islamic Philosophy of Elimination of Nations

Warning for the Humanity

Affirmation of the Special Creation of Adam

Man is Unaware of the Origin of Life

Blind Faith and Unsubstantiated Arguments

Miracle of the Holy Qur’an

Russel’s Objections

Russel’s Ignorance



The Torah (the Old Testament of the existing Bible) estimates the appearance of Adam to have taken place 6,000 years ago. According to Dr. Maurice Bucaille’s researches into the Torah, Prophet Adam was created in 4,000 BC.1 Several Muslim historians have criticised Jewish claims to this effect. Arab scholar Ibne Aseer challenges the Jewish claim that Adam’s appearance and the migration of the holy Prophet were separated by a gap of 4,642 years. But Greek Christians put this period to be 5,992 years.2 Ibne Kathir is of the opinion that such discrepancies with regard to dates and eras in the Torah were due to the commentaries that were supplemented later and were besides the original.3

Bible’s statements to this effect were of doubtful authenticity for a long period for the Muslim historians. But such of the Bible and Qur’an’s statements are being challenged in the light of the recent archaeological, paleontological and anthropological evidences which point to man’s presence on the earth for lakhs of years and his evolution in stages instead of only thousands of years. Fossils of a few incomplete but partially identical to human skeletons are offered in evidence. These fossil men are claimed to be intermediate links between the present day man and its ape ancestors. This is therefore used as negation of the theory of sudden appearance of man.

Both these statements are however victims of certain imbalances. Though the period of Adam’s appearance is not certain even from the Islamic accounts and sources from the Qur’an and the Hadith, yet it cannot certainly be spread over millions of years. The Torah’s estimation may be a little wrong on this or that side, but cannot be termed a major deviation as the period of the “modern man” began some 10,000 years ago according to anthropology. And, as will be proved later, the “Adam” could well be the representative of the “modern man”.

It seems appropriate to make a preview of the latest information about the “fossil man”, which will be carried with sources in later stages. Most of these details have been gathered from the Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983 edition. It will also be in place to explain that use of certain terms from anthropology and paleontology such as “fossil man” and “ape man of Java”, has been made in the discussion out of sheer necessity of comprehension. It is Islamically unacceptable as “man” is only appropriate for the descendants of Prophet Adam.

But wherever possible I have introduced “pre-Adam creature”. I hope this terminology would give no room for any miscomprehension.


Evolutionists’ Claims

It is on the basis of certain fossil remains found during geological investigation that paleontologists established that gorillas and chimpanzees, both members of ape family were the forefathers of man. They believe that evolution in these four-legged apes continued over a period of lakhs of years until it evolved into a two-legged species. It was similar to apes but walked on two legs similar to man, though stooping. It was named Ramapithecus. It later developed into Australopithecus. This developed into a further improved form which walked straight taking the name Homo erectus. But it still had some hunch on the back and is stated to be dumb. But it had much more developed brain than its preceding species and it knew the use of stone tools. The ape man of Java and Heidelberg man were supposed to belong to this species. These two species of fossil man were found in Java and Germany respectively. Still millions of years later another improved form with a close similarity with the present man evolved. It was called Homo sapiens. It had a much larger brain than the previous species and knew making tools and even gathered his food by hunting. Two of its extinct species known as “Neanderthal man” and “Cro-Magnon man” were named after skeletons recovered from a place known as Neanderthal in Germany and Cro-Magnon cave in France.

Excavations have yielded fossils of jaw bones, teeth, skulls etc. which are termed as incomplete skeletons. Such recoveries are continuing. Various parameters have been fixed to determine their antiquity, and their forms which forms the basis of their division into species. Thus the intermediate links are being established in order to stretch the origin of man by lakhs of years into the history disproving the belief that this period extended over only few thousand years. The target is religion. The materialists, through such fossilised evidences, proceed to disprove the age of mankind set by the scriptures, and thereby strike at the root of the religion itself. In other words it amounts to dubbing religion a bundle of oddities, myths, half-truths and falsehood.

This was an issue which has perplexed the Christian scholars and created doubts in the minds of Muslim intellectuals. Thus the intellectual circles grew sceptical about Adam’s personality and absoluteness of his appearance on the earth. The Christian world could not bear this onslaught from the Darwinist circles and gave in. The incomplete and inadequate scriptures it possessed did not help them much in developing fitting responses to the new situation. All this must explain their temporary nature for guidance in a particular age.


Qur’an Accepts the Challenge

Contrary to all this, it is the Qur’an’s eternal miracle that has contained adequate response for all the challenges in all the ages. It is why the Qur’an has been termed as the Muhaimin (protector of all revealed scriptures).

To thee We sent the Scripture in truth, confirming the scriptures that came before it, and guarding it in safety: so judge between them by what Allah hath revealed. (Qur’an, 5:48)

Besides, the Qur’an is the guidance for the entire mankind and is replete with intelligent arguments which have been expressed in diverse ways.

A guide to mankind, also clear (Signs for guidance and judgment (between right and wrong). (Qur’an, 2:185)

We have explained (things) in various ways in this Qur’an, in order that they may receive admonition. (Qur’an, 17:41)

As to thee, the Qur’an is bestowed upon thee from the presence of One Who is Wise and All-knowing. (Qur’an, 27:6)

It is also a trait of the Qur’an that it claims itself to be the criterion in disputes between different groups of men. It says:

We have sent down to thee the Book in truth, that thou mightest judge between men, as guided by Allah: so be not (used) as an advocate by those who betray their trust. (Qur’an, 4:105)

And We sent down the book to thee for the express purpose, that thou shouldst make clear to them those things in which they differ and that it should be a guide and a mercy to those who believe. (Qur’an, 16:64)

Thus the Qur’an is a living document of everlasting nature, that it covers all that which could happen to man till the Day of Judgment, should be an invitation enough for the scholars and intellectuals to dive into its depths and formulate guidance for the humanity. It will be only then that the ever-living miracle of the Qur’an will be revealing itself.

If the holy Qur’an could solve the issue under reference convincingly then there can be no doubt about its authenticity, truthfulness and eternal universality. Of course, it is impossible to foresee, record and solve the future happenings thousands of years earlier to their actual occurrence without any divine help. One who therefore refuses to accept this fact will only be depriving himself of the divine guidance.


Universal Popularity of Evolution Theory

The theory of evolution has raised a big note of interrogation for the intellectuals. It dominates the contemporary human thought. Claims and counter claims and long drawn debates have produced quite a good amount of literature on the issue. The religion has to provide guidance in the matter, lest it is pushed into irrelevance.


Islam’s Guidance

Islam being the eternal and everlasting guidance, must possess an answer for the emerging challenges and face them on the same plane. It exhorts its followers to be realistic and pragmatic in all such affairs. It encourages the enquiry, scrutiny and research. Let us look for the way the Qur’an invites us to look into the question of origin of life and creation of man.

Travel through the earth and see how Allah did originate creation. (Qur’an, 29:20)

And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are Signs for those of assured Faith. (Qur’an, 45:4)

And among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the living creatures that He has scattered through them. (Qur’an, 42:29)

And of everything we have created pairs: that ye may receive instruction. (Qur’an, 51:49)

These and many such verses exhort the Qur’an readers to delve deep into nature and his eternal quest should prompt him to study the natural phenomena. This invitation to look into the nature is in a way a device to intellectually convey the divine message to the people. Allah has created the world in such a way that any one who deliberates into its manifestation would approach the truth.

Allah created the heavens and the earth in true (proportion): verily in that is a Sign for those who believe. (Qur’an, 29:44)

The modern discoveries could be explained in a better manner in the light of the Qur’anic fundamentals. The Qur’an has embraced various scientific realities in its contents. But it has two preconditions that such facts are purely scientific observations instead of hypotheses and myths and secondly the verses are not interpreted out of recognised context and juristic boundaries. The argument should be based on accurate interpretation as is acknowledged by usage, syntax and principles in exegesis. The interpreter is also supposed to harbor no thought of any conflict between the Qur’an and the well recognised scientific facts and observations. Qur’an being the divine scripture, encompasses knowledge of the past and future. It cannot be wrong or faulty on any account. It cannot be challenged on events in future.

The truth is from thy Lord, so be not at all in doubt. (Qur’an, 2:147)


Pre-Adam Creations

The Qur’an hints at the presence of Jinn, a conscious and wise creature even before Prophet Adam on the earth. There are two broader hints available. The first one is a doubt expressed by the angels with regard to the creation of man on the earth. The angels apprehended the man to be quarrelsome often causing bloodshed on the earth. This assumption is perhaps based on their previous experience with some creatures on the earth.

They said: Wilt Thou place therein one who will make mischief therein and shed blood? (Qur’an, 2:30)

This Qur’anic verse throws light on the following facts:

1. There existed some creature on the earth prior to Adam’s era.

2. There were some creatures among them who caused bloodshed.

3. They too were made of flesh and blood.

4. They wielded weapons as bloodletting presupposes this.

5. They had fingers similar to the present day man without which the weapon wielding is not possible. None of the present day species among creatures other than man can use weapon.

6. It also goes to prove that they even made weapons and were skilled.

7. Weapons making required wisdom and ingenuity. So those creatures were endowed with a conscious brain.

8. They were bound by a Shariah (Law) as is evident from the word Fasad (mischief) which is opposed to the Salah (reform). The words Fasad and Salah have been used in the Qur’an in context with people who were bound by some Shariah.

9. Once it is accepted that those people were bound by the Shariah, it is almost inevitable to accept that they communicated with each other which is essentially linked with comprehension and perception.

10. These facts are by itself a proof that a system of civilisation had been evolved, whatever might be its level and standards.

All these flow logically from a single hint thrown by the holy Qur’an. This may set a pattern for deliberation into the holy Qur’an. Secondly the holy Qur’an itself refers to the creation of Jinn as a pre-Adam creature.

We created man from sounding clay, from mud moulded into shape; and the Jinn race, We had created before, from the fire of a scorching wind. (Qur’an, 15:26-27)

If the recent archaeological finds have pointed to the existence of some pre-Adam creatures, a believer in Islam need not deny them. Rather these discoveries, in themselves which testify or verify the Qur’an’s glory, should only reinforce our faith.


Adam: Successor to Jinn

According to certain exegetes, Adam was a Khalifa or successor to those pre-Adam species or a successor to the Jinns in specific order as Khalifa connotes, the one who succeeds to an earlier species.4

And several holy Traditions point to the fact that those who existed on the earth prior to Adam, were Jinn. Several commentaries have referred to this aspect and a few make certain bizarre revelations. I quote here from some sources.

Ibne Qutaiba reports from Wahab bin Munabbah that Jinns lived on the earth prior to Adam. But one group among them indulged in bloodletting. Allah sent down an army of angels on the earth led by Iblees. They drove away Jinns. He recited the following verse from the holy Qur’an: ‘And We created Jinns before them from flames of hot winds’. (15:27) Thus they drove the Jinns away to the border and to islands in the oceans.5

Scholar Ibne Jareer Tabari reports from Ibne Abbas that Jinns inhabited the earth earlier. But they indulged in bloodshed and mutual killings which led to strife. Allah then sent down Iblees with a band of angels who themselves were known as Jinns. Thus Iblees and his companions killed the Jinns and drove them away to islands in oceans and mountains.6

Scholar Jalaluddin Syuthi quotes Ibne Abbas through Hakim which is regarded Sahih according to Hakim himself, that Ibne Abbas, while explaining the verse ‘I am about to place a viceroy in the earth’ (Qur’an, 2:30), say that the Jinns were created 2,000 years before Prophet Adam. But when they indulged in killing and bloodshed, Allah sent armies of angels who drove them away ... So when Allah said He wanted to appoint regent (successor) on the earth, the angels asked whether Allah wanted to inhabit the earth with creatures that would create strife and cause bloodshed?, then Allah replied that He knew what they knew not.7

Ibne Jareer in an other reference adds further:

And then Allah created Adam and made him to inhabit the earth. This is explained by the verse: ‘I am about to place a viceroy in the earth’. (Qur’an, 2:30) It therefore means that I intend to appoint Adam as the successor to Jinns who will settle therein and will inhabit it.8

Even scholar Ibne Kathir has reported from several sources meanings to the effect that the Jinns inhabited the earth prior to Adam who were killed due to rebellious tendencies.9


Hinns Before Jinns

Scholar Ibne Kathir makes another startling discovery that there existed Hinns and Banns on the earth before the Jinns on the earth. And according to Ibne Kathir this view is held by many exegetes. They were driven away by Jinns as did the angels with the Jinns. He writes:

Several exegetes are of the view that Jinns were preceded by Hinns and Banns. Then Allah overpowered the Hinns by Jinns in a way similar to the driving away of Jinns from the earth. And the word Bann might mean a kind of creature which had settlement.10

The use of word Hinn is in vogue in Arabic literature with reference to “ghost”. This is however in a figurative sense and is relevant with Arabic poetry only.11


Unity of God, Not Evolution

This is an absolutely silencing evidence against the theory of evolution. Islam not only admits existence of creatures prior to man, but goes to the extent of indicating that even prior to Jinns (preceded man), other creatures existed, who, of course, were inferior to them. This clearly asserts that Islam is positive about the existence of such creatures earlier to man who were inferior and weaker comparatively. And it proceeded from lowly and inferior to superior and strong, ultimately culminating in man, the super most. It was no evolutionary process but was a strategy of creation. It manifests in a unity in divine scheme for its creations.

However, the summary of this discussion is that the earth had witnessed existence of several intelligent species even before man. But their physical details are not available. The holy Traditions point to variegated kinds of Jinn. It is possible that in skeletons (no complete skeleton has so far been found) are remains of those Jinn and Hinn as similarities are the hallmark of succeeding species. And such resemblances were mistaken for evolution by the evolutionists because most of them were atheists. We could also make a comparative study of the Islamic teachings and the latest researches on the topic.


Distinction of Islam

The Encyclopaedia Britannica admits that, unlike Western religions, Islam has recognised the existence of spiritual beings to exist in these forms:

Ambivalent or neutral spiritual beings are usually not found in western religions ...... Islam, however, classifies spiritual beings into angels (Malaika), demons (Shayatin) and Jinns or genies.12

This in itself is Islam’s claim for superiority over the Jewish and Christian faiths. I have discussed the existence of Jinns in skies in other articles.13

Here we will discuss only the Jinns on the earth. The Jinns in the form of Satan even now invisibly exist on earth. These discussions will also counter the theory advocated by some modern revivalists that Jinns were nothing but some sort of wild men and they do not have any separate spiritual existence.


Jinns Followed a Shariah

1. Previous discussion has made it clear that Jinns were created some 2000 years prior to Adam.14

Another report says that the angels were created on a Wednesday, Jinns on a Thursday, and Adam on a Friday.15 It does not mean that they were created on subsequent days. Since the Qur’an explains that one day might range from 1,000 years to 50,000 years, the successive days clearly denote periods vastly spread over thousands of years. However the knowledge of accurate periods are only divine prerogative. We are unable to determine them.

2. Scholar Ibne Kathir is of the view that the Jinns ate, drank and bore children, like human beings.16

3. Ibne Kathir has identified both believers and disbelievers among the Jinns.17

4. Ibne Kathir reports differences of opinion on the admissibility of the faithful followers among Jinns into the heavens. He also conjectures that they will save themselves from the fire of the hell. But basing himself on facts stated in Chapter Rahman of the holy Qur’an he opines that they too will enter heavens.18

All this testify to the fact that even the pre-Adam creatures were bound by a Shariah (divine code). But there may be vast differences between their code and the divine code given to us. The Qur’an itself claims that the Jinns were bound by a Shariah.

I have only created Jinns and men, that they may serve me. (Qur’an, 51:56)

5. Scholar Badruddin Shibli (died 769 A.H.) has authored an entire volume on Jinns. He quotes a Hadith reported by Abu Huraira from Zamakhshari’s Rabiul Abrar, wherein four categories of spiritual beings have been mentioned as Malaika, Satan, Jinn and man. According to it, the Jinns are nine times more numerous than men.19


Jinns are Made of Fire

Qur’an explicitly lays down that the Jinns were created out of fire as is evident from Verses 27 in Chapter Hijr and 15 of Rahman. The Hadith explains it thus:

Ayesha (May Allah be pleased with her) reports from Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) that angels were made out of light, Jinns were created out of flame and Adam was created out of the material already described about to you (i.e., out of clay).20

Apropos the above discussion, a question arises logically. Were the Jinns proved to be creatures of flesh and bones with blood circulating in the body with regular eating habits and performing marital and other rituals, it is obvious that they were composite beings similar to man. Then if so how were they created out of fire? What were their constituents? Could we imagine them to be composed of anything other than what constitutes the other creatures? At least 92 known elements form the basic ingredients of every material object found on the earth in various proportions.21

Even the celestial bodies are made out of the same ingredients.

According to one explicit verse of the Qur’an, all creatures were created out of water:

And Allah has created every animal from water. (Qur’an, 24:45)

At another place the Qur’an says:-

We made from water every living thing. (Qur’an, 21:30)

It is therefore clear that all living beings (except the Malaika who have been separately categorised as in accordance with Chapter Nahl: 49) including the Jinns, have been created out of water. Even the scientific discoveries testify it. Cell, the minutest part of any living body consists of 70 percent of water. This is how the latest discoveries of science testify to the divine verses.

If water is also an essential constituent in the creation of Jinns, how could they be made of fire? This had been a question, this author has been probing for years at a stretch. On the basis of this study I presume that the creation of Jinns has involved certain “inflammable ingredients” such as hydrogen, phosphorus or sulphur in excess. It means that the ingredients going into the constitutions of cells in Jinn and man varied in proportions.

As per the current knowledge of man, all living beings (animals or plants) have the following ingredients which constitute 99 per cent of the matter in them:22

Oxygen 62.0% Phosphorus 1.14%

Carbon 20.0% Chlorine 0.16%

Hydrogen 10.0% Sulphur 0.14%

Nitrogen 3.0% Potassium 0.11%

Calcium 2.5% Sodium 0.10%

Beside this, the living beings also have minute quantities of magnesium, iron, manganese, copper, zinc, boron, molybdenum, iodine and cobalt which are considered necessary for animals and plants.

It must be clear that these ingredients are found in varied proportions in cells of various species and are responsible for differing characteristics. It is on this basis I assume that this proportion could be different in human beings and Jinns. Probably this is why men are referred as raised from ‘dust’ while Jinns are called ‘creatures of fire’. It should be borne in mind that man is not merely dust despite he being raised out of dust (clay). Nor the Jinns are fire, notwithstanding their creation from fire.23

It may be possible that some combustible element is found in excess proportion in the constitution of Jinns, such as sulphur, phosphorus or hydrogen.

Availability of phosphorus and sulphur in the nature is limited while hydrogen and carbon are in plenty. However, hydrogen is combustible in its individual capacity and it loses this capacity on reaction with other elements e.g. its reaction with oxygen forms water, which is a fire extinguishing agent. Carbon is found in all organic substances in nature and its presence in any compound makes it potentially combustible. The fire itself is not an element but is potentially present in carbon containing compounds. Fire could therefore be held as synonym to carbon.

Though the carbon content in the upper crust of the earth is only 0.2 percent, yet it constitutes the fundamental unit of most of the compounds found in the universe.24

In the final analysis, carbon and water seem to be essential ingredients of all living beings in this divine workshop. Possibly the Jinns have been created with these elements alone with some degree of variation in quantity. It is difficult to know in what proportion the ingredients went into the constitution of the pre-Adam creatures. Perhaps the chemical analysis of the fossil remains may throw some light on this aspect. There is need for research in the field.

The Qur’an specifies that the Jinns were created out of “flame of the fire”. At another place it mentions “Blast of the hot air”. These terms are yet to be fully understood. They are relative allegories found in Qur’an which are to explained in the light of future scientific revelations.

A study of Imam Raghib Asfahani’s thought provoking classification of the ambiguous verses of the holy Qur’an will be quite useful. He classifies Qur’anic verses into three types.

1. Basic verses with exact meaning (Mohkamat).

2. Verses with ambiguous meaning (Mutashabihat).

3. Basic cum ambiguous verses.

Then he places the ambiguous verses in three categories:

1. Such of ambiguous verses which do not reveal themselves to anyone but Allah, the Author of the Qur’an such as the exact happening of the Resurrection Day, appearance of promised animal on the earth etc.

2. Such ambiguous information which may possibly be interpreted, like strange phrases, intricate commands etc.

3. Verses falling in between the two categories which are comprehended by some scholars while remaining unexplained for others.25

One more type can be added to them namely such ambiguous verses which revealed themselves in later stages while remaining non-explained in preceding ages. These will be explaining themselves in the light of the latest information. This category may be termed time-bound ambiguous verses (Mutashabihat Izafi Zamani).

This could be only a short review of the Islamic concepts and realities about Jinns which pertains to pre-Adam species of Jinns. Since it has no practical application on the Islamic life, these aspects have been vague. Much of it will explain or reveal itself as the age advances. The wisdom of ambiguous verses lies in the fact that they reveal themselves at various stages of human knowledge. Many such verses are explaining themselves in our age too. A few of the latest discoveries are being offered as proof.


Incomplete Evidence

But before we discuss the issue it will be in place to explain that the modern science has not arrived at any conclusive evidence about the “earliest human beings”. The scientists are of the view that the fossils unearthed are defective and inadequate:

Tantalizing gaps remain in our knowledge of early man, even though they have been narrowed dramatically by recent fossil discoveries. Detailed examination of bones, weapons and tools has resulted in interpretation of where and when man first appeared and who his ancestors were. But the remains are usually fragmentary—rarely are whole bones found, let alone a complete skeleton which makes the assignment of any find within the family of man problematic.26

It can thus be inferred that archaeological discoveries cannot be taken at their face value. Whatever has therefore been conceded on the basis of fossils is not beyond the realm of hypothesis with equal possibility of their being proved right or wrong. At the most they can be held as “speculation”. This sometimes provides deceptive clues. An interesting instance is related thus:

In 1912 the scientists discovered an unusual human skull with a chimpanzee like jaw bone at Piltdown in the U.K. The scientists named it “Piltdown man”. But after a 40 year discussion it was found that it was a contrived fossil, somebody having left different bones and old weapons together with an intention of confusing the scientists.27


Types of Fossil Man

The scientists trace the origin of man on the earth to lakhs of years ago contrary to the Bible’s claim of 6,000 years. This they prove through dissimilar bones and skulls of some “man-like creatures” who are extinct now. Considering them links of the same series, they have classified them under the species Hominid or Hominidae. The species is defined thus:

Member of the human zoological family including existing and fossil man.28

The species Hominidae thus covers all the man-like species preceding the present man. “Fossil man” applies to all those forms of extinct man the remains of which are today found only buried. These fossils have been classified as: Ramapithecus, Australopithecus, Homo erectus, Homo sapiens, Neanderthal man & Cro-Magnon man.

Besides them, there are a few unimportant types of fossil men too which are mostly ignored.29



This ape man dates back to seven million years before Christ and is suspected to be short i.e., nearly four feet. Since no skeleton has been found, no estimates of its body or physique have been established. However this hypothesis has been raised on the basis of a few fossil fragments of teeth and jaw. Since the succeeding species Australopithecus had begun to walk on two feet, it is presumed that Ramapithecus set the process of change in this species. It is on this basis that it is zoologically classified as belonging to the family of man.30



This Latin term means “Southern Ape”. It was first discovered in Africa. This sub-man represents the border species between man and the chimpanzees. According to Haeckel, it was a dumb species.31 This was a definitively two-legged species. Many experts believed this species to form a link between the apes and man. It reigned the earth between eight million years ago and continued up to 15 lakh years ago.32 The ape man of Java is categorised under this species. It had three distinguishing characteristics over the sub-human ape!

1. It walked on two legs.

2. It had a larger brain to that of gorilla.

3. It knew making weapons out of stones etc.


Homo erectus

The term indicated a man who walked erect. It is the extinct species of the present day family of man which roamed the earth in lower and middle Pleistocene period which began some 25 lakh years ago and continued till 10,000 years ago. Though variously described by experts, it was the nearest predecessor of man. Its fossil remains were found in Asia, Africa and Europe.33

This species was found between a million years ago and some two lakh years ago. It had an arched skull with pointed and constricted forehead. Its skull is estimated to have a volume ranging from 800 to 1,100 cubic centimeters. It had a long face and large teeth and jaws.34


Homo sapiens

It means the intelligent man. The present man is classified under the Homo sapiens. Its fossils are nearly three lakh years old. It is distinct over other previous species due to several characteristics. It walks on two legs, volume of brain is nearly 1,350 cubic centimeters, broad forehead, smaller teeth and jaws, nominal chin, weapon and tool using, intelligent enough to use language and aware of writing skills etc. It inherited some of the characteristics from its predecessor Homo erectus.35 However collectively all these characteristics were evolved by it alone. The Homo sapiens’ age spreads between one lakh years ago to three lakh years ago.36

It should however be clearly borne in mind that all these fall into the realm of hypothesis and are not absolute realities. The experts have themselves differed on various aspects. A few variants of the opinion could be observed here.

There are wide gaps in the epochs attributed to the latter two species viz., Homo erectus and Homo sapiens from the geological point of view also:

There is a considerable gap in time between specimens of Homo erectus, the earliest man to walk erect, and Homo sapiens (intelligent man).37

The geologists and archaeologists are yet to unravel the mystery behind this. Similarly their fossil remains are not found everywhere on the earth. The compilers of the Illustrated Reference Book of the Human Body write:

In tracing the early evolution of Homo sapiens a major difficulty has been that the older finds are limited mainly to Europe.38

Besides this, the size of the skull found at various points in Europe shows wide degree of variation. As the compilers observe:

All this means that no complete skull has been found. And fragmented study is the basis of conclusions which has equal chance of being accepted as factual or false.

Thus not only ideological differences exist on this plane but even the concepts have undergone alterations. For reference one could study the notes in The Encyclopaedia of Ignorance by scholar D.C. Johnson under chapter “Rethinking the Origin of the Genus Homo.”39 He writes:

Investigations related to the unraveling intricacies of mankind’s earliest stages of evolution have proliferated during approximately the last 15 years. It has become increasingly clear that although the storehouse of human paleontology is considerably fuller now than in the past, we still must await additional evidence before final decisions can be made concerning human evolution and taxonomy.40

He further writes:

It is a difficult task for the anthropologists to ascertain relationships between such fossils.41

He is of the opinion that fragments of fossils are inadequate; A hominid jaw fragment and an arm bone fragment do not give us much insight into the problem of human origins because these specimen are so fragmentary.42 He adds:

Taken as a whole, the present evidence does not substantiate placing all specimen into a single species - the range of variations is too pronounced and the morphological adaptations appear to be quite distinctive.43

This summarised review should stimulate thinking in order that hasty conclusions are avoided. Now we will discuss the intelligent man.


Types of Homo sapiens

The Homo sapiens too had a few species. Of these, two: Neanderthal man and Cro-Magnon man have become extinct. However the third of the series namely modern man continues to survive.44 Thus none of the predecessors of the modern man or any other species in the family Hominidae exists today.45

Now let us look at Neanderthal man and Cro-Magnon man.


Neanderthal Man

The Neanderthal man lived around the Mediterranean Sea and parts of Europe in the last phase of the Pleistocene epoch (which began 25 lakh years ago and continued till some 10,000 years ago). Neanderthal is a derivative from a place Neander Valley which is close to Dusseldorf in Germany. Fossil remains of Neanderthal man were found in this valley. These were excavated in 1856.46

Neanderthal man was one of the intelligent man which inhabited the earth during the extreme and last of the Ice Age.47 He was short, stout, large skulled and had thick eyebrows which was found on the earth till some 30,000 years ago.48 Neanderthal man heralded civilization.49 He was not only a hunter but was conscious about life and death. He perhaps had also initiated religious rites and magic etc.50

Neanderthal man was a good hunter and weapon maker. He appeared some 1.10 lakh years ago just ahead of the last glaciation.51 He knew the use of fire.52 He devised different tools and instruments. He also made hand axes, knives, and choppers.53 It may be explained that the oldest tools found on the earth are about 26 lakh years old.54 For example, he drenched the wood and then seared it in fire to make them sharp.

Neanderthal man indeed possessed tools and it is claimed that he had instruments to clean the skin. Their women lived in houses while men went out for hunting. The men and women among them had distinct dresses.55 They buried their dead and thus this custom is nearly 50,000 years old.56 The stone tools, found at the sites from where fossil remains of Neanderthal man were recovered date back to nearly 90,000 years to 40,000 years.57

It is rather difficult to establish the antiquity of the man by looking at the fossil remains of the Neanderthal man as it has many ambiguities.58

Although the number of finds of this “classical” Neanderthal have made them justly famous, the various specimens do not provide the vital information necessary to trace the evolution of modern man.59


Neanderthal Man was Different from the Modern Man

He (Neanderthal man) was certainly different from modern man.60

The general pattern of the anatomy of the face and even of the skull vault of these early Neanderthal peoples was not greatly unlike that of modern Homo sapiens; this was also true of the bones of the limbs, although these are still hardly known. There was nonetheless a complex of skeletal features that distinguished them from modern human populations.61

This group was originally recognised by a combination of cranial, dental, and posteranial features that were generally considered distinct enough to classify Neanderthal man as a separate species.62

In this way there are conflicting opinions about the Neanderthal man but it is clear that they were a separate species and were included in the Homo sapiens only due to their “intelligence”. This is why experts betray a good measure of reluctance in such a categorization.


Another Mystery about Neanderthal Man

The stone age is said to have suddenly disappeared from Europe some 35,000 years ago and Neanderthal man had yielded his place to Cro-Magnon man which was somewhat different from the modern man.63

Quite suddenly these people disappeared from the fossil record and various theories have been put forward to account for their disappearance.64

The factors responsible for the disappearance of the Neanderthal people are an important problem to which there is unfortunately still no clear solution.65


Cro-Magnon Man

Cro-Magnon man, the second representative of the “intelligent” man or Homo sapiens derived its name from Cro-Magnon caves in France from where fragments of its skeleton were found. It is presumed to have appeared some 35,000 years ago.

Fully modern man - whose first representative is the Cro-Magnon - emerged within this period, perhaps 35,000 years ago, during the time of action, of development and elaboration of stone technology... 66

The Cro-Magnon is the name of a cave at Dordogne in France where skeletal remains were found in 1868 A.D.67 They had long heads, low foreheads, very broad faces, deep-set eyes and tall stature.68 They were reigning the earth between 35,000 to 10,000 years B.C. Another estimate puts them to have reigned on the earth some 25,000 years before Christ.69 Their cranial vault had a 1,600 cubic centimeter capacity.70

Cro-Magnon man, like his predecessors in hominid evolution, was a hunter and a gatherer. Nomadic groups moved from place to place in the continual search for food. All of this changed about 7,000 to 8,000 B.C. when, in the Middle East, Neolithic man began to cultivate crops and rear domesticate animals.71


Does Cro-Magnon Man Exit?

The disappearance of the Cro-Magnon man is as mysterious as the Neanderthal man. A few observations could be studied:

Perhaps as complex as the question of origin is that of the duration of Cro-Magnon culture and the disappearance of Cro-Magnon man. The later question is, in a sense, more a matter of genetics than of descriptive anthropology, since it is assumed that the Cro-Magnon race or type was simply absorbed into later European population.72

It is simultaneously suggested that the disappearance of Cro-Magnon man is akin to Neanderthal man.73

The question of the relation of Cro-Magnon man to earlier forms of Homo sapiens is still unclear... (Similarly) the question of the relationship of Cro-Magnon peoples to the distinctive Neanderthal peoples who preceded Cro-Magnon man in Europe, is still to be settled.74

This is a clear indication that it was a different species altogether. However, if it is established through further research that the Cro-Magnon man does not exist today and is fully extinct then it will not be difficult to accept “Adam” as the originator of man. And research so far has come very close to accept this fact. Its appearance took place nearly 10,000 years ago.

Advocates of evolution are of the view that the existence of man or people akin to man is incontrovertibly established by the archaeological sources. But reality is different. The precedence of one species over the other species in terms of epoch, is no proof in itself that the later originated from the earlier. It will be rather more appropriate to assume that “developed species” came into being due to the physical changes of the earth noticed over a period. In the changed physical circumstances the earlier species must have gone extinct.

But a lot of metaphysical factors too are soon in the play, as we have discussed in the light of the Islamic traditions earlier. Any “Law-bound” or “Shariah-bearing” species or “intelligent” species is raised on the earth as a test and is appointed vicegerent of God. But when it fails to fulfill its duties and in discharge of responsibilities, a new creature is raised to enter the arena. This has been a divine tradition. This will be discussed in detail in incoming chapters.

However, the sum total of the discussion so far is that it is not accurate or appropriate to surmise that the developed species of today have resulted from graduation of lower species into developed ones. It is a hypothesis not supported by any concrete proof. Added to this are a number of mysteries raised in the process. Even Darwin had to confess that there are difficulties in establishing the links between modern day man and its purported predecessor.

In a series of forms graduating insensibly from some ape-like creature to man as he now exists, it would be impossible to fix on any definite point when the term man ought to be used.75

Thus the evolution theory merely appears to be hypothesis not duly supported by facts. Rather the facts have only gone against it.

There are enough facts that point to specific creation of man as opposed to the evolution. One among them is the more rapid psychological evolution of man thereby giving birth to civilisation in comparison to the biological evolution. This has thrown up a note of interrogation before the experts who confess it thus:

Another difference between biological and psycho-social evolution is that, whereas the former is slow and has taken over three billion years to produce man, psycho-social evolution is alarmingly rapid and is accelerating. It has taken only 10,000 years for man to pass from bows and arrows to thermo-nuclear weapons.76

Even renowned historian Toynbee was of the opinion that “consciousness” emerged more rapidly in the last 5,000 years than previous one million or half its years.77

At this stage one has to ponder and question how suddenly there was a phenomenal briskness in the development of “conscious and psychological qualities” among the creatures. Is it without any reason or purpose? If this universe does not betray any pattern or system in its mechanism, this extra-ordinary phenomenon could not be without any reason and this significant matter must not have assumed any significance all of a sudden. All this only hints at appearance of Adam who was created by the designer of this universe by blowing spirit into the matter, thus compressing an event into a few thousand years which otherwise would have claimed billions of years to happen by itself.

Any examination of the matter, analysis of the elements and ingredients, properties and characteristics would have no remote possibility of their bearing consciousness or perception. These mysterious qualities cannot be anything but divinely blown and spiritually inspired. These are supernatural in character and thus unfathomable on lines or other physical facts. These are the divinely gifted attributes by which the human being see, speak, write, listen, ponder, perceive and argue. Even the previous species had all these qualities in some measure. So they too were bound by a divine law. However its degree was far less in intensity than is with Adam which is Adam’s distinguishing characteristic. The Qur’an has the following verses to explain this phenomenon:

When I have fashioned him (in due proportion) and breathed into him of My Spirit, fall ye down in obeisance. (Qur’an, 15:29 & 38:72)

Then He fashioned him in due proportion, and breathed into him something of His spirit. (Qur’an, 32:9)

Is it not the miracle of the divine spirit that the human civilisation and culture has been ever advancing forward and it has known no stagnation. And this position has been enjoyed by none else other than the man.

We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of Our Creation. (Qur’an, 17:70)

The biologists now admit that the “biological evolution” of man which was an unconscious and `meaningless’ process has almost ceased to happen and that now cultural evolution has taken over the evolutionary process itself. Prof. Tomlin comments:

If this theory (theory of evolution) disposed of the idea of special creation, it introduced an idea almost as difficult to grasp namely the interiorization of the evolutionary process at the stage of man, whereby conscious intelligence succeeded an apparently unconscious and ‘meaningless’ process. In short, cultural evolution succeeded biological evolution, but how it did so, remained obscure.78

Could it be termed anything but manifestation of the divine spirit? However the materialists deny, the facts cannot be obscured.

On the earth are signs for those of assured faith as also in your own selves: will ye not then see? (Qur’an , 51:20-21)

This was all about what we have so far known with regard to the “evolution of man”, and a cursory glance over what is said to be the fossil fragments of prehistoric man. Evidently all this does not prove the evolution theory. The evolution theory is neither substantiated by the resemblances among the proximate species. However it will be natural to question as to where the extinct species as indicated by the fossil fragments be placed among the living beings. From Islamic point of view, the answer is straight. Jinns and Hinns have inhabited the earth even before the man. Again this leads one to question as to who should be termed Adam among these previous species and who were Jinns and Hinns. It could be resolved by applying the parameters set by the Qur’an and the Sunnah and the qualities attributed to the Prophet Adam. Those of the species conforming to these qualities should be categorised under human beings. The “modern man” could thus well be termed as Adam, while scope for Cro-Magnon man’s falling under this category is doubtful. If the modern man, whose origin dates back to 10,000 years ago, took birth from Prophet Adam, the Jinns must have begun from the Cro-Magnon species or may possibly have begun from Neanderthal man. Nothing could be said conclusively in this regard. We need to wait for more investigation into this aspect.

Some other disturbing factors intrude into the investigations which include sudden disappearance of certain species from fossil record such as Neanderthal species; age gap between other species etc. This however resolves itself if one goes into the Islamic interpretation of the history of creations. As would be seen from the Qur’an, these species might have been destroyed or eliminated as a consequence of universal disobedience towards divine order. They were replaced by other species. A slight hint is available in the story of Prophet Adam, where the angels said to have driven out the Jinns from the earth.


Who is Adam?

Prophet Adam’s personality comes out in a crystal clear manner from the accounts related by the Qur’an. Prophet Adam was not only a dignified, cultured and civilised man, but was a highly learned, graceful and debonair personality. It certainly does not apply to a chimpanzee, ape man or a sub-human. The explicit verses of the Qur’an and the Hadith portray Adam not merely as the father of the humanity but as the first prophet. The following verses serve to depict Adam:

1. And He taught Adam the names of all things. (Qur’an, 2:31)

This means that Adam was an enlightened man. An ignorant and illiterate or uncultured person could only be the farthest removed interpretation of this verse.

2. He has created man, He has taught him speech and intelligence. (Qur’an, 55:3-4)

Adam was taught to speak immediately after creation as a miracle. Noted exegetes Qatada and Ibne Abbas interpret the word Insaan (man) as Prophet Adam. Even the verse He has taught him speech and intelligence has been interpreted to indicate three aspects:

a) Names of all things, b) Nature of all things and c) Languages.79

Besides, Ibne Munzir reports it from Ibne Juraij that this means Prophet Adam who was shown the path of guidance and the one which leads one astray.80

It must be borne in mind that education or learning presupposes power of speech. It only goes to prove that Prophet Adam was not merely endowed with power to speak but had an excellent mental power which enabled him to perceive things in nature and those on the earth.

The word Al-Asma embraced a wide variety of things and articles as has been explained by several commentators of the holy Qur’an. Prophet Adam was told about a wide range of things and their characteristics.81

The modern archaeological findings and fossils do not throw any light on as to which species in Hominidae family first assumed speech and when. However since fossil man lived in colonies, they are presumed to have developed a sign language for communication in operations such as hunting of big animals.82

Therefore the interpretation of Adam cannot be stretched to mean any kind of creatures that were either dumb or who used sign language.

3. Whether Prophet Adam knew how to read and write? A few of the verses throw some light on this aspect:

Proclaim! And thy Lord is Most Bountiful, - He Who taught (the writing) by the pen, - Taught man that which he knew not. (Qur’an, 96:3-5)

According to Ka’ab, the first literate man was Prophet Adam.83 Ibne Qutaiba is of the opinion that Adam knew to read and write and on him were revealed the dotted alphabets (Huroofe Mo’jam) in a volume containing 21 leaves (pages). This was the first book of the world in which the peripheries of the languages of the world were defined.84

Allama Zarkashi reports from Abul Hussein Bin Faris that it was Prophet Adam who wrote books in languages ranging from Arabic to Syriac. It is said that he wrote them on the clay and baked them into tablets some 300 years earlier to his death. He further says that the script is not a human innovation but is a divinely inspired art. Quoting the above verses of the holy Qur’an, he opines that if the truth were this it was Allah Himself Who might have taught Prophet Adam and the other prophets writing inherently.85

Written language is clearly a much more recent human accusation, with no good evidence for it before 5,500 years ago.86

And nothing could be said about the origin of the script and languages. But since the species preceding the Homo sapiens are less likely to be literate, in all probability the term Adam is applicable to a modern man.

4. The holy Qur’an says in absolute terms:-

We have indeed created man in the best of moulds. (Qur’an, 95:4)

It is therefore not appropriate to presume that ugly animals such as monkeys would have been the earliest man. As is seen from the Qur’an and the Hadith, Allah had turned certain nations into monkeys and pigs in punishment for their sins. (Vide Qur’an 5:60)

5. According to a Hadith in Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim “Allah, the glorified, created Adam similar to Himself. 87 It has attracted much criticism as it hints at a physical existence for Allah. Though several explanations have been made for this Hadith, but a matter of fact analysis unfolds a host of new facts which in themselves carry answers for several modern problems. e.g.,

a) This Hadith glorifies Adam.

b) This is a refutation of Adam being a sub-human or ape-man.

c) It contradicts the concept of evolution of man.

All this could sum up Adam’s personality in that he was not an evolved species, nor did he carry any changes. He was one manifestation of Allah’s nature from his very birth. However the Hadith, Allah created Adam in His Shape’, has also been interpreted as Adam being raised as man in the initial stage of creation itself which explains that Adam did not pass through various embryological stages in the womb of a mother as is the case with other men and Adam’s offsprings. The spirit was breathed into Adam after being raised as a fully grown man. This line of argument comes from Hafiz Ibne Hajar.88

6. Another Hadith portrays Adam as a handsome man, as smart as Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Imam Nawowi reports a saying from Ayesha, the holy wife of Prophet Muhammad:

Ayesha reports Prophet Muhammad to have told her: ‘Of all the people I bear the utmost resemblance with our father Adam. My father Ibrahim was most akin to me physically as well as in behaviour.89

This means that Prophets Adam, Ibrahim and Muhammad (peace be upon all of them) had many resembling facial and physical features. Physical features of Prophet Muhammad are well recorded and therefore are also a reflection of the other two historical personalities. All this must be enough for visualising the personality of the earliest man viz. Adam. A look at the several Ahadith reported in Jamiut Tirmizi and Shamailut Tirmizi also provides us a graphic sketch of Prophet Muhammad’s physical features:

Bara says: “I did not see anyone more handsome than Prophet Muhammad robed in red attire and sporting long hairs. His hair locks touched his shoulders. He had a broad chest. He was neither short nor tall.”90

Hazrath Ali narrates that Prophet Muhammad was neither short, nor tall, but had a middle stature. His hair were neither too curly nor straight, but had bends. He was neither fat nor chubby faced, but had a slight roundness in face. He had a fair complexion with a slightly red tinge. Eyes were jet black with long eyelashes. Shoulders were broad. His body bore no hair but for a line of hairs stretching from chest to naval. Palms and soles were fleshy. His gait was firm and swift as if he is walking down a steep surface.91

Anas says: “Allah’s Prophet had a modestly sized and well proportioned body. He had a wheatish complexion. Whenever he walked, he was a little bent”.92

When Bara was asked by someone whether Prophet’s face was long (like a sword) he said: ‘No, it was like moon.’93

7. Something similar is related about Adam, the first man. He had no beard and it appeared in succeeding generations. He was very tall (about 90 feet according to some accounts), densely haired, wheatish complexioned and was very handsome.94

8. Agricultural activity and textile weaving started from Adam’s period itself. It is said when Adam descended on the earth, he began cultivation and Eve (Hawwa) spun and wove clothes.95

Similarly Ibne Asakir reports from Ibne Abbas that Adam engaged himself in cultivation.96 Besides, Dailami reports from Anas in Musnad Firdaus that Adam was the earliest weaver.97

9. Adam had been taught all important crafts. This has been reported by Bazzaz, Ibne Abi Hatim, and Tabrani and is narrated by Abu Moosa Ashari.98

10. Adam was not only a pious individual but was also the first Prophet on the earth, according to Islamic beliefs. The Qur’an and Hadith, both are witness to it. However I am postponing rest of the debate for sometime in future.

In the final analysis, Adam was a highly dignified, cultured and civilised person. On whichever species of man all these characteristics apply, he will be named ADAM.


Evolution is Proofless

It could be gathered by the Qur’an and Hadith that Adam was not an outcome of some evolutionary process but was a special creation (creature) as is evident from his traits. He was guided at every step by an invisible force.

The major evidence marshalled against the evolution lobby in proof of Adam not being an evolutionary creature is that Adam’s earliest offspring did not know how to dispose off their dead.

So when Qabeel, the eldest son of Adam killed Habeel, his brother, he did not know what to do with the body of his dead brother. Finally Allah sent a crow which dug the ground and guided him to the proper method of disposal of the dead body. This made Qabeel regret his ignorance.

“Woe is me!” said he; “Was I not even able to be as this raven, and to hide the shame of my brother?” Then he became full of regrets. (Qur’an, 5:31)

It is only a proof that the creation of Adam had taken place in totally new and unfamiliar circumstances. Had he been a creature of evolutionary process, he should have certainly been aware of methods of disposal of a dead body.

According to one account when Adam died, angels bathed his body, applied perfumes, shrouded it, offered the funeral prayer, dug his grave and buried him. Then they turned towards Adam’s sons and said: “You should follow this method to bury your dead.”99

Tafseer Durre Manthoor records many such reports from Ibne Abbas and others. All these only prove that Adam and his offspring were not aware of the method of the burial of their dead. It is a proof enough that Adam was the first person of his kind.


Divinity and Denial of Evolution

No member or species of Hominid which forms the link between the man and the apes is now found in the world. The extinct species include Homo erectus and two species of Homo sapiens: Neanderthal man and Cro-Magnon man.

The question that as to how at once they disappeared from the earth is a natural one, as, except for a few species, no family or phylum has lost all its species from amoeba to man. Why after all only species proximate to man should disappear? No evolutionist has any satisfactory answer for all this.

This fact effectively refutes the evolution theory. If ever the evolution theory could have any truth, the new varieties or species were more likely to disappear rather than the older ones, as the older species quantitatively as well as qualitatively fare better than every new species. Even the archaeologists concede that the weapons making has been in vogue for lakhs of years. The oldest tools found so far date back to at least 26 lakh years. It could only mean that the weapon making was in practice even before the appearance of Homo erectus and Homo sapiens. Then how could it be possible that the new species eliminated the stronger and numerically more members of the older species? But the riddle we face is that there were hardly any encounters between the old and the new. Although the disappearance of the new species is a proven fact according to the given accounts, this is further reinforced by the archeologists’ argument that there were age gaps between several species. And it is clearly accepted that Neanderthal man disappeared suddenly from fossil records which can only mean that a new species replaced it suddenly. This can be interpreted as absence of “encounters” or collision between a few old and new species and the older species vanished or perished without any war. How? Who eliminated them? And by what means? Hardly any evolutionists has a solution for this riddle.

A likely answer could be that species or animals such as dinosaurs etc. also vanished from the earth just like the Hominid. But it can be dismissed easily as the dinosaurs were only remotely related to man and inhabited the earth in different circumstances. But my question pertains to proximate species. How could they vanish when amoeba, unicellular species survives? How could one explain the survival capacity of the weaker species in comparison to the developed species? The theories of “Struggle for Existence” and the “Survival of the Fittest” do not support this phenomenon. How could this natural selection in reverse gear be explained?

From the religious point of view, the answer could be that, if at all, those accounts given by the archaeologists are accurate, these fossil remains have been preserved by the nature in order that man could learn from them. It has twin advantages: it not only proves existence of God, but also verifies Islam’s truth. All conscious creatures and law-bound (Shariah-bound) creatures (genus Homo according to the present terminology) are created for test on this earth in that they differentiate between right and wrong and virtues and vices. They are eliminated if they constantly indulged in disobedience of divine commandments as could be gathered from the numerous verses in the holy Qur’an administering warning to the erring nations.

Therefore it could be believed that several conscious or law-bound creatures were obliterated from the face of the earth in retribution for their excessive disobedience. The Qur’anic reference to the elimination of Jinns from the earth by a heavenly creature prior to Adam is one example.


Islamic Philosophy of Elimination of Nations

The Qur’an attributes the excessive disobedience of the divine law and disloyalty towards Allah as the reason for fall, decline and phasing out of nations from the earth. It uses the term Fitna (wrong-doing and transgressing the limits) for them. This tradition has been equally applicable on the pre-Adam and post-Adam creations! The Aad, Thamud and several other nations were destroyed just as the Jinns and Hinns were eliminated from the earth for indulging in sins. This tradition continues from antiquity:

Generations before you were destroyed when they did wrong: their Apostles came to them with Clear Signs, but they would not believe! Thus do We requite those who sin. Then We appointed you as viceroys in the earth after them, that We might see how ye behave. (Qur’an, 10:13-14)

These two verses while explaining the divine law have laid down the philosophy of “Caliphate of the earth.” (Vicegerency in the World)

How many populations have We destroyed which were given to wrong doing? They tumble down their roofs. (Qur’an, 22:45)

How many were the populations We utterly destroyed because of their iniquities, settling up in their places other peoples? (Qur’an, 21: 11)

See they not how many of those before them We did destroy?- Generations We had established on the earth, in strength such as We have not given to you - for whom We poured out rain from the skies in abundance, and gave (fertile) streams flowing beneath their (feet): yet for their sins We destroyed them, and raised in their wake fresh generations (to succeed them). (Qur’an, 6:6)

This last verse fully applies to the modern age as it invite one to ponder over the fate of previous nations with the help of the study of their remains. In their modern context it must include archaeology and paleontology which loom as a question mark over the humanity. What we need is a pining for lesson.

On this occasion, it must be borne in mind that in the present day world where so much of development has taken place in the atomic and interplanetary communication fields, that any confrontation between two super powers, even though as a result on some misunderstanding, can destroy the entire human habitations. It will be a punishment for the criminals and ungodly persons among the human beings. But the entire human race will have to bear the consequences. In this way, another epoch will end without any “divine intervention.” The human beings will eliminate themselves. And perhaps this will be the occasion when the Doomsday will be proclaimed.

On you will be sent (O Ye evil ones twain!) a flame of fire (to burn) and a smoke (to choke): No defence will ye have. (Qur’an, 55:35)


Warning for the Humanity

The sudden elimination or phasing out of the previous “conscious species” constitutes a warning for the humanity, especially for the evolutionists, lest they make a mockery of the divinity. They should shed their self-centrism and arrogance and follow the divine dictates whole heartedly. Otherwise the threat of sudden divinely ordained destruction might prove real. All “conscious” and “law-bound” species were given opportunity to adopt the right path. However if they continued with misdeeds they were suddenly eliminated, as is evident from the consequences of various species under genus Homo. Allah has explained his law thus:

Never did We destroy a population that had not a term decreed and assigned beforehand. Neither can a people anticipate its term, nor delay it. (Qur’an, 15:4-5)

And how many populations We destroyed, which exulted in their life (of ease and plenty)! Now those habitations of theirs, after them, are deserted,- all but a (miserable) few! And We are their heirs! Nor was thy Lord the one to destroy a population until He had sent to its Centre an apostle, rehearsing to them Our Signs; nor are We going to destroy a population except when its members practice inequity. (Qur’an, 28:58-59)

And verily We have destroyed your fellows; but is there any that remembereth? (Qur’an, 54:51)


Affirmation of the Special Creation of Adam

In the final analysis, it could be said that the conscious creatures or law-bound species appeared and disappeared from the earth suddenly. This in itself is an incontrovertible evidence of “special creation”. Had they been result of evolution, they could not have disappeared suddenly, as is evident from other existing species. All this leads to proving of the existence of a metaphysical power. No interpretation other than this will be accurate. It is this unseen power which is responsible for this creation and elimination. He creates everything and all His creations carry the divine stamp in the form of similarities and resemblances, a symbol of unity of God and unity of creation. Man has erred in misinterpreting them as evolution. Only “matter” cannot be responsible for these many miraculous diversities in nature. The materialists have replaced the God with matter and have attributed divine properties to it which has made the matters even more mysterious.


Man is Unaware of the Origin of Life

As several of the biological and physical mysteries of the universe could not be unravelled by the man due to his limited knowledge, the actual nature of the special creation cannot also be known by him. These are in reality “mysteries” which must remain mysterious.

Every species has appeared suddenly in the nature much in the same way as the elimination of a species takes place suddenly and abruptly. The story of Adam explains these phenomena and the fossil remnants reinforce their veracity. For Almighty Allah it was enough to say that Adam was created out of mud and spirit was blown into it. Man could not have been in a position to grasp anything more than this. Even in this adult and matured age he is unable to grasp several metaphysical facts as he has not been endowed with knowledge to unravel the mysteries of nature and metaphysics. The Qur’an says:

Of knowledge it is only a little that is communicated to you (O men!). (Qur’an, 17:85)

The most important question in biology is what after all is “Life”? How did the protoplasm come into being? But all scientists are tight-lipped over this. These constitute a challenge for the human wisdom. A.C.Dutta, a biologist, confesses the man’s inability to encompass or comprehend the mysteries of life:

Life itself is mysterious and its origin still remains shrouded in mystery.100

Dr. Issac Asimov argues on the DNA and its mysterious structure on the following lines.

... How, then, did DNA, and life, start? This is a question that science has always hesitated to ask, because the origin of life has been bound up with religious beliefs even more strongly than has the origin of the earth and the universe. It is still dealt with only hesitantly and apologetically.101

Thus to comment or opine about the biological changes almost amounts to claiming “divinity” for oneself as none other than Allah is aware of them. Biologist Simpson has rightly admitted that the beginning of life is a mystery, the perception of which is beyond the realm of science. And man can never get to it.


Blind Faith and Unsubstantiated Arguments

All this leads one to believe in the hypothetical nature of the evolution theory, although it is merely a figment of fertile imagination, and a concoction churned out by materialists in opposition to religion and religious values. The theory of evolution thus runs parallel to the religious concept of creation. If the evolutionists doubt it, they have no option but to declare openly their faith in the existence of God. This they will never do as they have developed a nausea towards religion and its values. I consider it the biggest ever lie floated in the contemporary age. Is it not tragic that hypothetical nay fictitious theory is being blindly accepted by the man? The demand of rationalism and scientific temper is that only empirically verified facts are accepted. This is the spirit of science. This leaves no scope for atheism and irreligiosity. Atheism cannot find any proof or substantiation. But atheists manipulate the laws of nature to contrive evidence in order to satisfy their whims and fancies. The holy Qur’an terms such tendencies as following “one’s whims and fancies”, or “to deify one’s own ego”, “to worship objects other than Allah”, or “to talk ignorantly” and “arrogance”:

Nay, the wrong-doers (merely) follow their own lusts, being devoid of knowledge. (Qur’an, 30:29)

Then seest thou such a one as takes as his god his own vain desire? Allah has, knowing (him as such), left him astray, and sealed his hearing and his heart (and understanding), and put a cover on his sight. Who, then, will guide him after Allah (has withdrawn Guidance)? Will ye not then receive admonition? (Qur’an, 45:23)

Yet they worship, besides Allah things for which no authority has been sent down to them, and of which they have (really) no knowledge. (Qur’an, 22:71)

Those who dispute about the Signs of Allah without any authority bestowed on them,- there is nothing in their breasts but (the quest of) greatness, which they shall never attain to. (Qur’an, 40:56)

This and many other similar verses of the holy Qur’an effectively counter the atheism and other misleading ideologies and they apply to all situations of human history and psychological conditions of man. It is why the Qur’an ever appears to be relevant and enlivening.

However it should be sufficiently evident from this argument that materialists are themselves victims of irrational ideologies of which they have accused the religionists. One has to follow the progress of this concept in future.


Miracle of the Holy Qur’an

So we have the story of the Prophet Adam as narrated by the holy Qur’an on the one hand and latest studies on conscious species before Adam on the other. Any effort to bring about computability among the two will reveal the miraculous feature of the holy Qur’an. Qur’an invites its readers to ponder over the various manifestations of nature and probe into the genesis of life in order that they serve as final warning from Allah. The rational arguments could be refuted but not the empirical and scientific ones which are one’s own observations. The holy Qur’an invites its readers to contemplate on natural phenomenon. It is one of the most wonderful aspect of the holy Qur’an:

Say: “Behold all that is in the heavens and on earth” (Qur’an, 10:101)

Say: “Travel through the earth and see how Allah did originate creation.” (Qur’an, 29:20)

And in the creation of yourselves and the fact that animals are scattered (through the earth), are Signs for those of assured Faith. (Qur’an, 45:4)

This is no less than a Message to (all) the Worlds. And ye shall certainly know the truth of it (all) after a while. (Qur’an, 30:87-88)


Russel’s Objections

The noted contemporary philosopher Bertrand Russel made certain somersaults while commenting on evolution in his book, The Impact of Science on Society. He believed that no one can contradict his views. The points raised by him were in derisive nay insulting tone against the religion. Though Christianity was his prime target, but no religion has been made an exception from his virulent attack. He writes:

Darwinism has had many effects upon man’s outlook on life and the world. The absence of any sharp line between man and apes is very awkward for theology. When did men get souls? Was the missing link capable of sin and therefore worthy of Hell? Did Pithecanthropus Erectus have moral responsibility? Was Homo Pekiniensis damned? Did Pilt-down man go to heaven? Any answer must be arbitrary.102

He further writes:

We must ask again: Should Pithecanthropus, if still alive, enjoy ‘The Right of Man’? Would Homo Pekiniensis have been the equal of Newton if he could have gone to Cambridge? Was the Pilt-down man just as intelligent as the present inhabitants of the Sussex village? If you answer all these questions in the democratic sense, you can be pushed back to the anthropoid apes, and if you stick to your guns, you can be driven back ultimately to the amoeba.103

Had Russel been alive today, he must have found his points adequately answered and his persistent refusal to have faith in the God would have lost justification. Monkeys and apes are those very creatures which despite vast similarities with human beings betray no iota of human wisdom. Experience shows that the monkeys could be tamed but cannot be turned into as useful and wise as men.

A few species of animals do appear to be similar but vastly vary in characteristics e.g., horse and mule. Though mules are cross breed of horses and asses, they do not possess any fraction of that energy which horses exude. The question that as to why mules have remained mules for thousands of years and did not evolve into horses could be justifiably asked! Why is it that mules remain fettered? This could be valid with other animals too. Then it will be just worthless to presume that the ape-man would have produced scientists, had they survived till this day.


Russel’s Ignorance

It has already been mentioned that the Pilt-down man was a fake and contrived species of man. Yet he refers to the Pilt-down man with a great authenticity. How could a great philosopher refer to it like this?

Russel’s (1872-1970) above mentioned book appeared in the world of books for the first time in 1952. It was the same year when Pilt-down man was proved a fake discovery. But Russel remained ignorant. The latter editions of his book retained the references to the fake Pilt-down man. A great philosopher, to remain so ignorant of contemporary discoveries is something unimaginable. Could we then take his criticism of religion as justified.

So far we had a discussion on the contemporary and Islamic beliefs about creation and evolution. It was basically ignorance that led the modern philosophers to conclude that Islam too based itself on myths. The Encyclopaedia Britannica has a chapter on “Islamic Doctrine and Myth”. It appears that there is an attempt to show Islam in superstitious lights.104

Secondly an impression has been created that Islam is merely a subsidiary to Judaism and Christianity and bases itself on their teachings.

For example this passage:

This picture of God - wherein the attributes of power, justice, and mercy interpenetrate - is related to the Judeo-Christian tradition, whence it is derived with certain modifications.105

But if at all Islam is mythical, why is it so successful in responding to modern challenges than the Judaism and Christianity? Islam could hardly be termed as a derivative of Christianity and Judaism which have gone out of date.

All such objections being raised against Islam today are nothing new. Even in the earliest period during the Prophethood of Hazrath Muhammad the pagans extended such allegations.

But the Misbelievers say: “Naught is this but a lie which he has forged, and others have helped him at it.” In truth it is they who have put forward an iniquity and a falsehood. And they say: “Tales of the ancients, which he has caused to be written: and they are dictated before him morning and evening.” (Qur’an, 25:4-5)

Often the pagans of Arabia came up with such allegation but could not sufficiently substantiate them. The Qur’an however preserved these charges and provided adequate replies. In yet another verse it says:

Say (unto them O Muhammad!): “He Who knows the secret of the heavens and the earth has revealed it (i.e. Qur’an). (Qur’an, 25:6)

The veracity of this statement is being established much more forcibly in the present age than it did earlier. Had it been a human effort, or a mere collection of tales or fiction, it would not have referred to the mysteries of the universe. Inevitably, one has to accept that the Qur’an has been revealed by the one who knows all those mysteries. This is what the above verse implies. Thus it is evident from the verse that the one who knows these mysteries is also the Author of the holy Qur’an, thereby the source of both being the one and the same. In this respect too, the Qur’an is a miracle, replete with eternal truths which are getting clearer in the light of modern researches.

Soon will We show them Our Signs in the (furthest) regions (of the earth), and in their own souls, until it becomes manifest to them that this is the Truth. Is it not enough that thy Lord doth witness all things? (Qur’an, 41:53)

All these verses must be enough to convince one that the holy Qur’an is a divine scripture, revealed on Prophet Muhammad. Its chief quality lies in its being a solution to all intellectual issues and mysteries of the universe, besides being a complete code of law. It is a guidance for the entire mankind.

Such are some of the stories of the Unseen, which We have revealed unto thee: before this, neither thou nor thy people knew them. (Qur’an, 11:49)

I follow but that which is revealed to me by inspiration; I am but a warner, open and clear. (Qur’an, 46:9)

We have put forth for men, in this Qur’an every kind of Parable, in order that they may receive admonition. (It is) a Qur’an in Arabic, without any crookedness (therein): in order that they may guard against Evil. (Qur’an, 39:27-28)

Blessed is He Who sent down the Criterion to His Servant that it may be an admonition to all creatures. (Qur’an, 25:1)

Verily this is a Revelation from the Lord of the Worlds: With it came down the Spirit of Faith and Truth to thy heart and mind, that thou mayest admonish in the perspicuous Arabic tongue. Without doubt it is (announced) in the mystic Books of former peoples. (Qur’an, 26:192-96)

From where did this book arrive? On whom was it revealed? Through whom did it arrive? How and why did it arrive? These are the questions that have been explained adequately in the Qur’an. Furthermore, the Qur’an is the only scripture the veracity of which has been carried by the earlier scriptures such as the Torah and the Bible. But no earlier scriptures ever claimed this veracity. This is one proof of the holy Qur’an being an eternal message for the whole mankind while the earlier scriptures were provisional in nature. And the Qur’an retains that individual charm to this day.



1. Buccaille, Maurice, The Bible, the Qur’an and Science, Karachi, P. 31.

2. Al-Kamil fit Tareekh, Beirut, 1402 A.H., Vol. 1, P. 14.

3. Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah, Beirut, 1404 A.H., Vol. 1, P. 96.

4. Fatawa Ibne Taimiah, Riyadh, 1398 A.H., Vol.35, P. 43.

5. Ibne Qutaiba, Al Ma’arif, Karachi, P. 8.

6. Tafseer Ibne Jareer, Beirut, 1400 AH, Vol. 1, P. 158.

7. Suyuti, Allama Jalaluddin, Tafseer Durre Mansoor, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pp. 44-45.

8. Tafseer Ibne Jareer, Beirut, Vol. 1, P. 157.

9. Tafseer Ibne Kathir, Vol. 1, P. 70. & Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah, Vol. 1, P. 55.

10. Al-Bidayah wan Nihayah, Vol. 1, P. 55.

11. Lisanul Arab, Vol. 13, P. 132.

12. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Vol. 1, P. 874.

13. Nadvi, Mohammed Shihabuddin, ‘Geography of the Heavenly Bodies - the Qur’anic Concept’ in Nida-e-Furqan, Bangalore.

14. Suyuti, Allama Jalaluddin, Tafseer Durre Mansoor, Vol. 1, P. 45.

15. Tafseer Ibne Jareer, Vol. 1, P. 157.

16. Al Bidayah wan Nihayah, Vol. 1, P. 56.

17. Ibid., P. 56.

18. Ibid., P. 57.

19. Shibli, Qazi Badruddin, Aakamul Marjan fi Ahkamil Jaan, Karachi, P. 11.

20. Sahih Muslim, “Kitabuz Zuhd”, Riyadh, Vol. 4, P. 2249; Musnad Ahmed Bin Hambal, Beirut, Vol. 6, P. 168.

21. For details see Islam ki Nashate Sania Qur’an ki Nazr Main (Urdu) By Mohammed Shihabuddin Nadvi, Karachi, 1983, Pp. 303-04.

22. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Vol. 4, P. 117.

23. Shibli, Qazi Badruddin, Aakamul Marjan fi Ahkamil Jaan, Pp. 13-14.

24. Encyclopaedia Britannica (Micropaedia), 1983, Vol.II, P. 549.

25. Al Mufradat fi Gharibil Qur’an, Beirut, Pp. 254-55.

26. Mitchell, James, Gen. Ed. The Illustrated Reference Book of the Human Body, London, 1982, P. 4.

27. Encyclopaedia Britannica, (Micropaedia), Vol. VII, P. 1009.

28. The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, 1982, P. 403.

29. For details refer The Illustrated Reference Book of the Human Body, P. 3.

30. Encyclopaedia Britannica (Micropaedia), Vol. VIII, P. 403.

31. Sahni, M.R., Human Evolution, Pp. 245 & 250.

32. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 2, P. 456.

33. Ibid., (Micropaedia), Vol. V, P. 105.

34. Ibid., Vol. 8, P. 1044.

35. Ibid., Vol. 5, P. 107.

36. Ibid., Vol. 8, P. 1030.

37. The Illustrated Reference Book of the Human Body, P.8.

38. Ibid.

39. Duncan, Ronald, edr. The Encyclopaedia of Ignorance, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1978.

40. Ibid., P. 244.

41. Ibid.

42. Ibid.

43. Ibid., P. 246.

44. Encyclopaedia Britannica, (Micropaedia), 1983, Vol. IV, P. 105.

45. Ibid., Vol. VIII, P. 1023.

46. Ibid., Vol. 7, P. 235.

47. The Illustrated Book of the Human Body, P. 8.

48. Ibid.

49. Ibid.

50. Ibid., P. 9.

51. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983., Vol. 8, P. 608.

52. Ibid., P. 609.

53. Ibid., Pp. 608-09.

54. Ibid., P. 608.

55. Ibid., Vol. 5, P. 1016.

56. Ibid., P. 533.

57. Ibid., Vol. 8, P. 1046.

58. The Illustrated Book of the Human Body, P. 9.

59. Ibid.

60. Ibid., P. 9.

61. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Vol. 12, P. 911.

62. Ibid., Vol. 8, P.1046.

63. The Illustrated Book of the Human Body, P. 9.

64. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Vol. 8, P. 1046.

65. Ibid., Vol. 12, P. 912.

66. Ibid., Vol. 8, P. 609.

67. Ibid., Vol. 5, P. 289.

68. The Oxford Illustrated Dictionary, 1982. P. 201.

69. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Vol. 5, P. 289.

70. Ibid.

71. The Illustrated Book of the Human Body, P. 9.

72. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Vol. 5, P. 290.

73. Ibid., (Micropaedia), Vol. V, P. 105.

74. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Vol. 5, P. 290.

75. Ibid., Vol. 8, P. 1043.

76. Ibid., Vol. 7, P. 21.

77. Toynbee, Mankind and Mother Earth, Oxford University Press, New York, 1976, P. 25.

78. The Encyclopaedia of Ignorance, Oxford, 1978, P. 228.

79. Ibne Jauzi, Zadul Maseer fi Ilmit Tafseer, Damuscus, Vol. 8, P. 109.

80. Suyuti, Allama Jalaluddin, Tafseer Durre Mansoor, Beirut, Vol. 6, P. 140.

81. Tafseer Ibne Kathir, Vol. 1, P. 72., Tafseer Kashshaf, P. 272., Tafseer Roohul Ma’ani, Vol. 1, P. 224., Ahkamul Qur’an Jassas, Vol. 1, P. 31., Tafseer Kabeer, Vol. 1, P. 258., Tafseerul Manar, Vol. 1, P. 262.

82. Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1983, Vol. 8, P. 1028.

83. Tafseer Roohul Ma’ani, Beirut, Vol. 30, P. 181.

84. Ibne Qutaiba, Al Ma’arif, Karachi, P. 9.

85. Zarkashi, Badruddin, Al Burhan fi Uloomil Qur’an, Beirut, Vol. 1, P. 377.

86. Encyclopaedia Britannica, Vol. 8, P. 1029.

87. Sahih Bukhari, “Kitabul Istezan”, Istanbul, Vol. 7, P. 125; Sahih Muslim, “Kitabul Jannah”, Riyadh, Vol. 4, P. 2183.

88. Ibne Hajr, Hafiz, Fathul Bari, Riyadh, Vol. 6, P. 366.

89. Nawowi, Imam, Tahzibul Asma wal Lughat, Beirut, Vol. 1, Pp. 95-96.

90. Tirmizi, Abu Isa, Jamiut Tirmizi, “Abwabul Manaqib”, (Bab Maja’a fi Sifatin Nabi Sallam)

91. Tirmizi, Abu Isa, Shamailut Tirmizi, Kanpur, Pp. 1-2.

92. Ibid.

93. Tirmizi, Abu Isa, Jamiut Tirmizi, “Abwabul Manaqib”, Beirut, Vol. 5. P. 598.

94. Al- Ma’arif, Karachi, P. 9.

95. Ibid.

96. Suyuti, Allama Jalaluddin, Tafseer Durre Mansoor, Vol. 1, P. 57.

97. Ibid.

98. Ibid.

99. Ibid., Vol. 1, P. 61.

100. Dutta, A.C., Botany for Degree Students, Oxford University Press, 1979, P. X.

101. Asimov, Dr. Isaac, Asimov’s Guide to Science 2 The Biological Sciences, England, 1978, Pp. 172-73.

102. Russel, Bertrand, The Impact of Science on Society, London, 1976, P. 26.

103. Ibid.

104. Encyclopaedia Britannica, (Micropaedia), 1983. Vol. III, Pp. 226-27.

105. Ibid., Vol. IX, P. 913.


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